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2286
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2289
2290
2291
2292
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2321
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2326
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2330
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2363
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2366
2367
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2369
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2371
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2374
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2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
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2437
# @(#)europe	7.57

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990,
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
#		std dst
#		LMT	Local Mean Time
#	-4:00	AST	Atlantic
#	-3:00	WGT WGST Western Greenland*
#	-1:00	EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
#	 0:00	GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer
#	 0:00	GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
#	 0:00	WET WEST Western Europe
#	 1:00	CET CEST Central Europe
#	 2:00	EET EEST Eastern Europe
#	 3:00	MSK MSD	Moscow
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
# is Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
# Oxford University Press (1980).

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04),
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
# ...
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
# ...
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
# in the Directive.


###############################################################################

# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
# The UK and its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar on 1752-09-14.

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06):
#
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
# of the text said:
#
# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
#
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
#
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
#
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828);
# it was popularized in 1840 by Capt. Basil Hall, RN (1788-1844),
# famed explorer and former Commissioner for Longitude.
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847 Sep 22 the
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
# adopted at all stations; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists most major
# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the Great Clock
# in Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880 Aug 2.
#
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
# transition date for London, namely 1847 Sep 22.  We don't know as much
# about Dublin, so we use 1880 Aug 2, the legal transition time.

# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
# a London builder who circulated a pamphlet ``Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
# One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.

# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.

# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
#
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.

# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
# From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john>
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.

# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14):
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19):
# The following list attempts to show the complete history of Summer Time
# legislation in the United Kingdom, and has quite a bit to say about
# the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well.
#
# Things that I have not personally seen are marked (???). Things that
# I haven't seen but Joseph Myers has are marked (jsm). The problem
# with finding old Orders (rather than Acts) is that nobody seems to
# keep the actual documents themselves, not even the Government. They
# get bound into annual volumes, which are published, but by the time
# this happens the Orders are mainly spent as the years they refer
# to have come and gone, so they don't get included in the annual
# volumes.
#
# Thanks are due to my learned legal friend Lorna Montgomerie, who dug out
# the dusty old statutes, to Melanie Allison of the Ministry of Defence,
# who provided the wartime regulations and a snippet of Hansard explaining
# why double summer time started on a Monday in 1945 (it was Easter),
# and to Joseph Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk>, who tracked down the Orders
# up to 1945, some of the old Acts, and the first five EC Directives.
#
# Some definitions:
#
# Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales
# United Kingdom: Great Britain plus Ireland (up to 1922) or Northern
# Ireland (since 1922)
# S.I.: Statutory Instrument, the modern name for secondary legislation
# S.R.&O.: Statutory Rules and Orders, the older name for secondary legislation
#
# Unless otherwise specified, Acts and secondary legislation are assumed
# to apply throughout the United Kingdom, but not to the Isle of Man
# or the Channel Islands.
#
# Some of the Acts and Orders I found in various libraries, and I don't
# have copies. When I looked at them I was looking for dates and not things
# like whether they applied to the Bailiwick of Jersey. I will try to
# check these documents again.
#
# ---
#
# - The Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880 (43 & 44 Vict. c. 9)
#
# Defined Greenwich mean time to be the standard time in Great Britain
# and Dublin mean time to be the standard time in Ireland, superseding
# various forms of local mean time.
#
# - The Statutory Time Act, 1883 (???)
#
# An Act of Tynwald, the Isle of Man Parliament. It appears to have
# defined the standard time on the Isle of Man as GMT but as I haven't
# seen it I don't know if it used Greenwich mean time, some other definition,
# or just said that Isle of Man time would be the same as in Great Britain.
#
# - The Isle of Man (War Legislation) Act, 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5. c. 62)
#
# Gives the power, by Order in Council, to extend wartime legislation
# to the Isle of Man.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 14)
#
# Introduced Summer Time for the first time, in Great Britain and Ireland.
# Specified a one hour offset from GMT (DMT in Ireland), dates of
# Sunday 21 May and Sunday 1 October and times of 02:00 (GMT/DMT).
# Gave a power to make Orders in subsequent years, for the duration
# of the then current war.
#
# - The Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 45)
#
# This abolished Dublin mean time at 02:00 DMT on Sunday 1 October 1916,
# bringing the whole of the United Kingdom onto GMT. As Ireland was behind
# GMT/BST at 02:00 DMT on 1 Oct Great Britain had already put the clocks back.
# Using Paul Eggert's suggestion of IST for Irish Summer Time and the figure
# derived from Whitman for the offset of IST from GMT (00:34:39) the sequence
# would have been:
# Dublin        London
# 02:34:38 IST  02:59:59 BST
# 02:34:39 IST  02:00:00 GMT
# 02:59:59 IST  02:25:20 GMT
# 02:25:21 GMT  02:25:21 GMT
# with the transition 03:00:00 IST -> 02:00:00 DMT -> 02:25:21 GMT all at once.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382
#
# An Order made under the Isle of Man (War Legislation) Act, 1914
# extending the Summer Time Act, 1916 to the Isle of Man. Dated
# 23 May 1916, two days after the start of Summer Time, but it says that
# the Act is deemed to have taken effect in the Isle of Man at the same
# time as it took effect in the United Kingdom.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1917, No. 362
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
# for Summer Time in 1917 of Sunday 8 April to Monday 17 September,
# both at 02:00 GMT. Note that Summer Time ends on a Monday.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time (Isle of Man) Act, 1916
# (the thing created by S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382) specifying the same
# dates of 8 April to 17 September, at 02:00 GMT for the Isle of Man.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
# for Summer Time in 1918 of Sunday 24 March to Monday 30 September,
# both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1918, No. 429
#
# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1918 with the same dates and times.
#
# - The Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act, 1918
#   (8 & 9 Geo. 5. c. 59)
#
# This gave power to specify a legal end date for the war just ended,
# which would affect things like the Summer Time Act, 1916, which applied
# only in wartime. This date was to be close to the date of formal
# ratification of the treaty or treaties of peace.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
# for Summer Time in 1919 of Sunday 30 March to Monday 29 September,
# both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1919, No. 366
#
# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1919 with the same dates and times.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
# for Summer Time in 1920 of Sunday 28 March to Monday 27 September,
# both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 573
#
# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1920 with the same dates and times.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
#
# An Order modifying both S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 and S.R.&O. 1920, No. 573 to
# change the end date for Summer Time from Monday 27 September to
# Monday 25 October (the time remaining 02:00 GMT). The 1989 Green
# Paper (Cm 722) says this was done because of a coal strike.
#
# - The War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 (10 Geo. 5. c. 5)
#
# This extends the power to make Orders under the Summer Time Act, 1916
# for a period of 12 months after the termination of the war.
# Came into force on 31 March 1920. Although the war had been over for more
# than 12 months by then the legal end date had not yet been set.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 and the War
# Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 giving dates for Summer Time
# in 1921 of Sunday 3 April to Monday 3 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1921, No. 364
#
# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1921 with the same dates and times.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 and the War
# Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 giving dates for Summer Time
# in 1921 of Sunday 26 March to Sunday 8 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
# It also mentions the arrangements for defining the legal end date
# for the late war. An Order was made on 10 August 1921, under the
# Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act, 1918, setting
# a date of 31 August 1921. This means the powers of the Summer Time
# Act, 1916 would finally expire on 31 August 1922.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 290 (???)
#
# This is probably the matching Isle of Man Order.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1922 (12 & 13 Geo. 5. c. 22)
#
# This specifies an offset of 1 hour and dates of the day after the third
# Saturday in April, unless that be Easter, in which case it is the day after
# the second Saturday, and the day after the third Saturday in September.
# The time is 02:00 GMT. It applied in 1922 and 1923, and longer if Parliament
# so approved. It applied to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well.
# Came into Force on 20 July 1920. Note the reversion to ending on a Sunday.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 1205
#
# An Order made under the War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920
# dated 13 October 1922. It revokes (among other things) the Order extending
# the Summer Time Act, 1916 to the Isle of Man.
#
# - The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1923 (13 & 14 Geo. 5. c. 37)
#
# This extended the Summer Time Act, 1922 (among other things) until
# 31 December 1924.
#
# - The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1924 (15 Geo. 5. c. 1) (jsm)
#
# This further extended the Summer Time Act, 1922 (among other things) until
# 31 December 1925.
#
# - The Time Act (Northern Ireland), 1924 (14 & 15 Geo. 5. c. 24 (N.I.))
#
# This Act says that while it remains in force, any Act or Order relating
# to the time for general purposes in Great Britain shall also apply
# in Northern Ireland, and the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 shall have effect
# accordingly.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1925 (15 & 16 Geo. 5. c. 64)
#
# This makes the 1922 Act permanent, with a change to the end date to the
# day after the first Saturday in October. Came into force on 7 August 1925.
#
# - The Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939 (2 & 3 Geo. 6. c. 62) (???)
#
# I haven't seen this one. It presumably gave the Government powers to
# do all manner of things during the newly started war.
#
# - The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939, S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
#
# These were made under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939.
# They change the end date to be the day after the third Saturday in November.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172
#
# An Order in Council amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# It changed the start date to the day after the fourth Saturday in February
# (ie. 25 Feb 1940).
#
# - S.R.&O. 1940, No. 1883
#
# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This continues summer time throughout the year after it starts in 1940.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
#
# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This introduces double summer time, starting at 01:00 GMT on the day after
# the first Saturday in May and ending at 01:00 GMT on the day after the
# second Saturday in August, offset another hour from normal summer time,
# which continues throughout the rest of the year.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
#
# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This changes the start date of Double Summer Time to the day after the first
# Saturday in April, bringing it forward from May.
#
# - S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
#
# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This changed the end date of Double Summer Time to the day after the
# third Saturday in September (ie. 17 September 1944).
#
# - S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
#
# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This changes the start and end dates of Double Summer Time to the
# day after the first Sunday in April and the day after the second Saturday
# in July (ie. Mon 2 April to Sun 15 July).
#
# I have this quote from Hansard (the official record of the United Kingdom
# Parliament), Oral Answers, 1 March 1945, cols 1559--60, explaining the
# unusual start on a Monday:
#
#  `58. Major Sir Goronwy Owen asked the Secretary of State for the Home
#   Department if he is now able to state the Government's proposals
#   regarding double summer time.
#
#   [two other similar questions omitted]
#
#   Mr. H. Morrison: The Government, in reviewing the matter, have
#   considered, [...] the conclusion has been reached that the adoption of
#   double summer time from the beginning of April is essential to the
#   maintenance of the war effort. [...] As 1st April is Easter Sunday,
#   when very early services are held in many churches, it is proposed that
#   double summer time shall start not in the night preceding Easter
#   Sunday, but in the night of Sunday-Monday so that it will operate from
#   Monday, 2nd April.'
#
# - S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
#
# An Order under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Acts, 1939 and 1940 revoking
# a long list of things, including the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This meant that Summer Time reverted to being set by the 1922 and 1925 Acts.
# It was made on 28 September, early enough to end Summer Time on the
# date defined by the 1925 Act: 7 October.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. 6. c. 16)
#
# Came into force on 11 March 1947. Amended the Summer Time Acts, 1922 and
# 1925 to change the dates of Summer Time and to introduce Double Summer Time
# (although it doesn't give this, or any, name for this period of 2 hour
# offset from GMT). Dates are given for 1947 only and are: 02:00 GMT Sunday
# 16 March, 01:00 GMT Sunday 13 April, 01:00 GMT Sunday 10 August, and 02:00
# Sunday 2 November. It gave a power to make Orders for subsequent years,
# both to vary the dates and to continue Double Summer Time. It applied
# to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
#
# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1948 of
# 14 March and 31 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# Although the 1947 Act had legislated for Double Summer Time, this was
# not continued after 1947.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
#
# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1949
# of 3 April and 30 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
#
# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1950
# of 16 April and 22 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
#
# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1951
# of 15 April and 21 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
#
# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1952
# of 20 April and 26 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
# This is the last of this run of Orders, so for 1953 things reverted
# to the 1922 and 1925 Acts.
#
# - The Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland), 1954 (1954 c. 33 (N.I.)) (???)
#
# I presume that section 39 of this Act is similar to section 9 of the
# Interpretation Act, 1978 (listed below) in specifying GMT as the
# legal time in Northern Ireland, replacing the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
#
# Specified dates of 26 March and 29 October (02:00 GMT) for 1961
#
# - Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
#
# Specified dates of 25 March to 28 October (02:00 GMT) for 1962.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
#
# Specified dates of 31 March to 27 October (02:00 GMT) for 1963.
#
# - Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
#
# Specified dates of 22 March to 25 October (02:00 GMT) for 1964.
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
#
# Specified dates for three years (all 02:00 GMT):
#   1965: 21 March to 24 October
#   1966: 20 March to 23 October
#   1967: 19 March to 29 October
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
# - Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
#
# The first of these specifies dates for 1968 of 18 February for the United
# Kingdom but 7 April for the Isle of Man, both ending on 27 October,
# all at 02:00 GMT. The second Order changes the Isle of Man start date
# to 18 February to match the United Kingdom.
#
# - The British Standard Time Act 1968 (1968 c. 45)
#
# This came into force on 27 October 1968 and continued summer time throughout
# the year. It expired at 02:00 GMT on 31 October 1971, as specified in the
# Act, as Parliament did not move to make this experment permanent.
# It applied to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
#
# Interestingly, it says baldly `This Act shall come into force on
# 27 October 1968', without giving a time. As S1 of the Act merely
# stated that `The time for general purposes in the United Kingdom
# (to be known as British standard time) shall be one hour in
# advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; ...' you could
# possibly argue that the start time of BStandardT was 00:00 1968-10-27,
# especially as the Act repealed the Summer Time Acts 1916--1947 in toto,
# thereby destroying the authority of the Summer Time Order specifying
# summer time in 1968.
#
# - The Manx Time Act 1968
#
# This is an Act of Tynwald (the Isle of Man Parliament) that said that
# henceforth Manx time would be the same as the time in Great Britain.
#
# - The Summer Time Act 1972 (1972 c. 6)
#
# This specified a reversion to normal Summer Time behaviour with a start
# date of the day after the third Saturday in March, unless that is Easter,
# when it is the day after the second Saturday, and an end date of the day
# after the fourth Saturday in October. Times are at 02:00 GMT, offset is
# 1 hour. It gives the power to make Orders to vary these dates and
# times. This Act is still in force and is the legal authority for
# implementing the EC Directives in the United Kingdom.
#
# - The Interpretation Act 1978 (1978 c. 30)
#
# Section 9 of this Act replaces section 1 of the Statutes (Definition of
# Time) Act, 1880 with very similar wording maintaining GMT as the legal
# time in Great Britain. This does not apply in Northern Ireland (it
# has its own Interpretation Act listed above).
#
# - Council Directive of 22 July 1980 on summertime arrangements (80/737/EEC)
#
# The first of the European Directives on Summer Time. It specified start
# dates for 1981 and 1982. No agreement had been reached on end dates.
# Only dates were given, there was no rule like `last Sunday in March'.
# The main change for the United Kingdom was a move to a 01:00 GMT change
# time. The dates:
#   1981: 29 March
#   1982: 28 March
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
#
# Specified dates for 1981 and 1982, with the start dates as in the
# EC Directive and all times 01:00 GMT:
#   1981: 29 March to 25 October
#   1982: 28 March to 24 October
#
# - Second Council Directive of 10 June 1982 on summertime arrangements
#   (82/399/EEC)
#
# The next European Directive. Specified dates for three years, 1983 to 1985.
# Agreement still hadn't been reached on a common end date, and wouldn't
# be until 1994 with the appeareance of the seventh Directive with a common
# date for 1996 and beyond, but this time the Directive gave two sets of
# end dates. The start date was specified by rule: the last Sunday in March.
# All times were 01:00 GMT. The end dates were given without rule, as:
#   1983: 25 September or 23 October
#   1984: 30 September or 28 october
#   1985: 29 September or 27 October
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
#
# Implemented the second EC Directive, using the October end dates.
#   1983: 27 March to 23 October
#   1984: 25 March to 28 october
#   1985: 31 March to 27 October
#
# - Third Council Directive of 12 December 1984 on summertime arrangements
#   (84/634/EEC)
#
# Specified start dates of the last Sunday in March and two sets of end
# dates, last Sunday in September and fourth Sunday in October, all at
# 01:00 GMT. The end dates were also specified as dates:
#   1986: 28 September or 26 October
#   1987: 27 September or 25 October
#   1988: 25 September or 23 October
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
#
# Implemented the third EC Directive, using the October end dates.
#   1986: 30 March to 26 October
#   1987: 29 March to 25 October
#   1988: 27 March to 23 October
#
# - Council Directive of 20 December 1985 amending Directive 84/634/EEC
#   on summertime arrangements (85/582/EEC)
#
# This was to do with the accession of Spain and Portugal to the EEC.
# The previous directve had used wording like `Member States belonging
# to the zero (Greenwich) time zone' when refering to the different
# sets of end dates. Portugal was in that time zone but was not going
# to follow the United Kingdom and Ireland dates, so the text was reworded
# without any change to the dates themselves.
#
# - Fourth Council Directive of 22 December 1987 on summertime arrangements
#   (88/14/EEC)
#
# This Directive covered only a single year: 1989. My guess is that
# this was because 1989 was one of the years when the historic United Kingdom
# end date of the Sunday after the fourth Saturday in October differed from
# the rule in the previous Directive of the fourth Sunday in October.
# All times are 01:00 GMT. No rule was specified, specific dates were given:
#   1989: 26 March to 24 September or 29 October
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
#
# Implemented the dates of 26 March to 29 October for 1989.
#
# - Fifth Council Directive of 21 December 1988 on summertime arrangements
#   (89/47/EEC)
#
# Covered the three years 1990 to 1992. All times are 01:00 GMT. Gave both
# rules (last Sunday in March, last Sunday in September or fourth Sunday
# in October) and specific dates:
#   1990: 25 March to 30 September or 28 October
#   1991: 31 March to 29 September or 27 October
#   1992: 29 March to 27 September or 25 October
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
#
# Implemented the fifth Directive using the October end dates.
#
# - Sixth Council Directive 92/20/EEC of 26 March 1992 on summertime
#   arrangements
#
# Covered the two years 1993 and 1994. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specified
# both rules (same as the fifth Directive) and specific dates:
#   1993: 28 March to 26 September or 24 October
#   1994: 27 March to 25 September or 23 October
#
# - Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
#
# Implemented the sixth Directive using the October end dates.
#
# - Seventh Directive 94/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
#   of 30 May 1994 on summer-time arrangements
#
# Covered the three years 1995 to 1997. Agreement had finally been reached
# on a common end date, to start in 1996. Both rules and dates were given.
# The rules were the same last Sunday in March to last Sunday in September
# or fourth Sunday in October for 1995, with the end rule changing to the
# last Sunday in October for 1996 and 1997. The year 1995 was another of
# the tricky ones where the EC and traditional United Kingdom rules differed
# but this time the UK changed on the fourth Sunday, 22 October, earlier
# than usual. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specific dates were also given:
#   1995: 26 March to 24 September or 22 October
#   1996: 31 March to 27 October
#   1997: 30 March to 26 October
#
# - Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
#
# Implements the seventh Directive using the October end date in 1995.
# Applies also to the Bailiwick of Guernsey but not to the Bailiwick of
# Jersey or the Isle of Man, which have their own (unspecified) legislation
# on the subject.
#
# - Eighth Directive 97/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
#   of 22 July 1997 on summer-time arrangements
#
# Covers four years: 1998 to 2001. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specifies both
# rules, last Sunday in March and last Sunday in October, and specific dates:
#   1998: 29 March to 25 October
#   1999: 28 March to 31 October
#   2000: 26 March to 29 October
#   2001: 25 March to 28 October
#
# <a href="http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si1997/97298201.htm">
# - Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
# </a>
#
# Implements the eighth Directive. Has the same text about the Isle of Man,
# Guernsey and Jersey as the 1994 Order.

# From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@hermes.cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06):
#
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
# </a>.

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-06-12):
#
# The date `20 April 1924' in the table of ``Summer Time: A
# Consultation Document'' (Cm 722, 1989) table is a transcription error;
# 20 April was an Easter Sunday.  Shanks has 13 April, the correct date.
# Also, the table is not quite right for 1925 through 1938; the correct rules
# (which Shanks uses) are given in the Summer Time Acts of 1922 and 1925.
# Shanks and the UK Government paper disagree about the Apr 1956 transition;
# since we have no other data, and since Shanks was correct in the other
# points of disagreement about London, we'll believe Shanks for now.
# Also, for lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948.
#
# Given Peter Ilieve's comments, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect:
#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
#	1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
# It actually just had one transition.
#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
#
# The following claims by Shanks are possible though doubtful;
# we'll ignore them for now.
#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
#	to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
#	conform with Great Britain.
#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
#
#
# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks.

# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Summer Time Act, 1916
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	May	21	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Mar	24	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Sep	30	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Sep	29	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Mar	28	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Oct	25	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	1924	-	Sep	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1924	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1926	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1927	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1928	1929	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1930	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1931	1932	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1933	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1934	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1935	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1936	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1938	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Nov	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
Rule	GB-Eire	1940	only	-	Feb	Sun>=23	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	only	-	May	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	1943	-	Aug	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
Rule	GB-Eire	1942	1944	-	Apr	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
Rule	GB-Eire	1944	only	-	Sep	Sun>=16	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Jul	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	1946	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1947
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Mar	16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Apr	13	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Aug	10	1:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Nov	 2	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Oct	31	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Oct	30	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Apr	Sun>=14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00s	0	GMT
# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	1960	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1954	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1955	1956	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1957	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1958	1959	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1960	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1963	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
Rule	GB-Eire	1964	1967	-	Mar	Sun>=19	2:00s	1:00	BST
# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
Rule	GB-Eire	1968	only	-	Feb	18	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
#	(no summer time)
# The Summer Time Act, 1972
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
Rule	GB-Eire	1981	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire 1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00u	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
Rule	GB-Eire 1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	1:00u	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
# See EU for rules starting in 1996.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Sep 22
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
Zone	Europe/Belfast	-0:23:40 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT
			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1 2:00s   # Irish Summer Time
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:21 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT
			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1 2:00s
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1921 Dec  6 # independence
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25 2:00
			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6 2:00
			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16 2:00
			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2 2:00
			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18 2:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST

###############################################################################

# Continental Europe

# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
# Common Market, etc.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	EU	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EU	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-

# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	W-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	W-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-

# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1940	only	-	Apr	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
Rule	E-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	E-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	E-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST	# Moscow Summer Time
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT	# Moscow Mean Time
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST	# Moscow Double Summer Time
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	17	 0:00	1:00	MST
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	MDST
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
# Shanks gives 1921 Mar 21 for the following transition.
# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (1993-11-12):
# My sources says, that it is Mar 20, not 21.
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
Rule	Russia	1984	1991	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Russia	1985	1991	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
#
Rule	Russia	1992	only	-	Mar	lastSat	 23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1992	only	-	Sep	lastSat	 23:00	0	-
Rule	Russia	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1993	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Russia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	WET		0:00	EU	WE%sT
Zone	CET		1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT
Zone	MET		1:00	C-Eur	ME%sT
Zone	EET		2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.

# From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12):
# The official German names ... are
#
#	Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
#	Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
#
# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
#
#	Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
#	Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
#	Postfach 3345
#	D-38023 Braunschweig
#	phone: +49 531 592-0
#
# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
#
#	Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
#	Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00


# Albania
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Albania	1940	only	-	Jun	16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Apr	10	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	May	 8	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Apr	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tirane	1:19:20 -	LMT	1914
			1:00	-	CET	1940 Jun 16
# The following transition is from Shanks's 4th edition (1995).
			1:00	Albania	CE%sT	1984 Jul
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Andorra
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31 2:00
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Austria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Sep	13	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1946	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:20 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Jun 16 3:00
			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1 2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Belarus
# Transitions before 1991 are from Shanks (1995).
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 28
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul  3
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	-	EET	1992 Mar 29 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1992 Sep 27 2:00s
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT

# Belgium
#
# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
#	Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
#	(Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
#	pp 8-9.
# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
#	Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references.
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
# 
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Belgium	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1922	1927	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1928	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1929	only	-	Apr	21	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1930	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1931	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1932	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1933	only	-	Mar	26	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1934	only	-	Apr	 8	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1935	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1936	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1937	only	-	Apr	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1938	only	-	Mar	27	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Apr	16	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	May	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:30 -	LMT	1880
			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 12:00 # Brussels MT
			0:00	-	WET	1914 Nov  8
			1:00	-	CET	1916 May  1  0:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Nov 11 11:00u
			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 20  2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep  3
			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Bosnia and Herzegovina
# see Yugoslavia

# Bulgaria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1980	1982	-	Apr	Sat<=7	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Bulg	1980	only	-	Sep	29	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1981	only	-	Sep	27	 2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Sofia	1:33:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:56:56	-	IMT	1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  3:00
			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
			2:00	Bulg	EE%sT	1982 Sep 26  2:00
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT

# Croatia
# see Yugosloavia

# Czech Republic
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1584-01-17.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1946	only	-	May	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1947	only	-	Apr	20	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 17 2:00s
			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1940	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Aug	15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	May	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	Sep	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	May	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	May	 9	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	Aug	 8	 2:00s	0	-
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways
# about many of the above dates; go with Shanks.
#
# For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
			 0:50:20 -	CMT	1894 Apr  # Copenhagen Mean Time
			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1980
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Faeroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11	# Torshavn
			 0:00	-	WET	1981
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
# and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.

#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Thule	1993	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Thule	1993	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormit
			-2:00	-	CGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
			-2:00	C-Eur	CG%sT	1981 Mar 29
			-1:00	EU	EG%sT
Zone America/Godthab	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
			-3:00	EU	WG%sT
Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik
			-4:00	Thule	A%sT

# Estonia
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15):
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
#
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28):
# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
# summer time next spring.''
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1919 Jul
			1:39:00	-	TMT	1921 May
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 22
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24 2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Finland
# See Sweden for when the Gregorian calendar was adopted.
#
# From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994):
# Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981.
# Go with Strang instead.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:52 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:39:52	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
			2:00	Finland	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29 2:00
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# France
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
# French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31,
# and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23.
#
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	France	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1922	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1923	only	-	May	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1930	only	-	Apr	12	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1933	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris,
# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco).
Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
# Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
# but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12),
# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
# Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Mar	28	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Sep	26	 1:00	0	-
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
# Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT.
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1940 Jun 14 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 25
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Germany

# From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29):
# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
#
#	<a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm">
#	Realisation of Legal Time in Germany
#	</a>

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes
# the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem)
# (1961-11-25), which gives dates only.  Guess 3:00 transition times.
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	May	31	3:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Sep	23	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks gives 1946-10-06; go with the PTB.
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
# The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times;
# go with Shanks.
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	May	11	2:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Jun	29	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr 2 2:00
			1:00	Germany	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Gibraltar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14 2:00
			1:00	-	CET	1982
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Greece
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1941	only	-	Apr	 7	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Apr	12	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Nov	26	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Oct	10	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1977	only	-	Sep	26	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1978	only	-	Sep	24	4:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Apr	 1	9:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Sep	29	2:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT
			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1941 Apr 30
			1:00	Greece	CE%sT	1944 Apr  4
			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1981
			# Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981;
			# go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Hungary
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1587-11-01.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Apr	 1	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	29	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Apr	15	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Sep	15	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Oct	23	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	May	23	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	Oct	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	 1:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Oct
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918
			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  6  2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  1 23:00
			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1980 Sep 28  2:00s
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Iceland
#
# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06):
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
#
# (1993-12-05):
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
# Iceland Almanak.
#
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
#
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
#
# (1993-12-10):
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
#	the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
#	(old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
# might mean something else (???).
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-12-09):
# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points.
# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that
# Reykavik was -1:28 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iceland	1917	1918	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1918	only	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Nov	29	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Nov	 3	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Mar	 2	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Nov	 2	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Mar	 8	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Oct	25	 1:00s	0	-
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1943	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:27:24 -	LMT	1837
			-1:27:48 -	RMT	1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
			-1:00	Iceland	IS%sT	1968 Apr 7 1:00s
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Italy
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri
# <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html">
# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14)
# </a>
# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
#
# year	FP	Shanks (S)	Whitman (W)	Go with:
# 1916	06-03	06-03 24:00	06-03 00:00	FP & W
#	09-30	09-30 24:00	09-30 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
# 1917	04-01	03-31 24:00	03-31 00:00	FP & S
#	09-30	09-29 24:00	09-30 01:00	FP & W
# 1918	03-09	03-09 24:00	03-09 00:00	FP & S
#	10-06	10-05 24:00	10-06 01:00	FP & W
# 1919	03-01	03-01 24:00	03-01 00:00	FP & S
#	10-04	10-04 24:00	10-04 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
# 1920	03-20	03-20 24:00	03-20 00:00	FP & S
#	09-18	09-18 24:00	10-01 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
# 1944	04-02	04-03 02:00			S (see C-Eur)
#	09-16	10-02 03:00			FP; guess 24:00s
# 1945	09-14	09-16 24:00			FP; guess 24:00s
# 1970	05-21	05-31 00:00			S
#	09-20	09-27 00:00			S
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Mar	10	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Mar	 2	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Mar	21	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Sep	19	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1940	only	-	Jun	15	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Sep	17	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Sep	15	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Mar	17	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Mar	16	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Feb	29	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1966	1968	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1966	1969	-	Sep	Sun>=22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1969	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	May	31	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1971	1972	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1971	only	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1972	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1973	1974	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1974	only	-	May	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1975	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1975	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1976	only	-	May	30	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1977	1979	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Sep 22
			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Nov	# Rome Mean Time
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/Vatican
Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/San_Marino

# Latvia

# From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17):

# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
#
# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
#
# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
#
# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
#
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:24	-	LMT	1880
			1:36:24	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
			1:36:24	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1 2:00
			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1919 May 22 3:00
			1:36:24	-	RMT	1926 May 11
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct 13
			# Shanks says 1944-08-08, but
			# Riga fell to the Red Army on 1944-10-13.
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
			2:00	Latvia	EE%sT	1997 Jan 21
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Liechtenstein
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vaduz	0:38:04 -	LMT	1894 Jun
			1:00	-	CET	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Lithuania
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917	    # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:35:36	-	KMT	1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
			1:00	-	CET	1920 Jul 12
			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
			1:00	-	CET	1940 Aug  3
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29 1:00u
			1:00	EU	CE%sT
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.

# From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07):
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.

# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Apr	28	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Sep	17	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Oct	 5	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Oct	24	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Oct	26	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1924	1928	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1925	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
			1:00	Lux	CE%sT	1918 Nov 25
			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6 2:00s
			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14 3:00
			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18 3:00
			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Macedonia
# see Yugoslavia

# Malta
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Sep	29	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Apr	21	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Sep	16	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1975	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2	# Valletta
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1973 Mar 31
			1:00	Malta	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Moldova
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Chisinau	1:55:20 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT

# Monaco
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16 3:00
			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Netherlands
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Shanks gives 1916 May 1 0:00 and 1916 Oct 1 0:00; go with Whitman.
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	2:00s	1:00	NST	# Netherlands Summer Time
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00s	0	AMT	# Amsterdam Mean Time
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Apr	16	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	AMT
# Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Sep	Mon>=24	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1922	1936	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1923	only	-	Jun	 1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1924	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1925	only	-	Jun	 5	2:00s	1:00	NST
# For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1926	1931	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1932	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1933	1936	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	-
# Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1938	1939	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	May	20	2:00s	0	-
# Before 1937, Shanks says just `0:20'; we use Whitman's more precise figure.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:28 -	LMT	1892 May
			0:19:28	Neth	%s	1937 Jul
			0:20	Neth	NE%sT	1940 May 16 0:40
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			1:00	Neth	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Norway
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks.
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	May	22	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
# Shanks omits the following transition; go with Whitman.
Rule	Norway	1935	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman says DST observed until 1942 Nov 1, then 1943 Mar 29 - Oct 4,
# 1944 Apr 3 - Oct 2, and 1945 Apr 1 - Oct 1; go with Shanks after 1940.
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1959	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1959	1965	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1965	only	-	Apr	25	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Oslo	0:43:00 -	LMT	1895
			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1940 Aug 10 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
Link	Europe/Oslo	Arctic/Longyearbyen
# From Whitman:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen	-1:00	-	EGT

# Poland
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1947	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1947	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1948	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1957	only	-	Jun	 2	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1958	only	-	Mar	30	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1959	only	-	May	31	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1959	1961	-	Oct	Sun>=1	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1960	only	-	Apr	 3	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1961	1964	-	May	Sun>=25	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16 3:00
			2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1922 Jun
			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23 2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1977 Apr  3 1:00
			1:00	W-Eur	CE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_
# <a href="http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml">
# http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24)
# </a>
# says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00.
# Stick with W-Eur for now.

# Portugal
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
#
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
#
# Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Jun	17	23:00	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Port	1917	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1917	1921	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1918	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1919	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1920	only	-	Feb	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1921	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1931	1932	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1934	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
# Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1940	only	-	Feb	24	23:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1940	1941	-	Oct	 5	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1941	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Mar	Sat>=8	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Apr	25	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Aug	15	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Oct	Sat>=24	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1943	only	-	Apr	17	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Port	1943	1945	-	Aug	Sat>=25	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1944	1945	-	Apr	Sat>=21	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
# Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Mar	27	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Sep	25	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1978	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1979	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:32 -	LMT	1884
			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1911 May 24   # Lisbon Mean Time
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00
			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26 1:00
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31 1:00u
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884		# Ponta Delgada
			-1:55	-	HMT	1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time
			-2:00	Port	AZO%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Azores Time
			-1:00	Port	AZO%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			-1:00	W-Eur	AZO%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28 1:00u
			-1:00	EU	AZO%sT
Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884		# Funchal
			-1:08	-	FMT	1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time
			-1:00	Port	MAD%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Madeira Time
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT

# Romania
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Romania	1932	only	-	May	21	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1932	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Romania	1933	1939	-	Apr	Sun>=2	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	May	27	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24	# Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29 2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1994
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT

# Russia

# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-12-02):
# On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an ``Eternal Calendar''
# with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week.
# On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the
# Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it
# reverted to the 7-day week.  With the 6-day week the usual days
# off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month.
# (Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_)
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations,
# and (unless otherwise specified) guessed what happened after 1991.
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks and the IATA.
#
# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04):
# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
# Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
#
# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30):
# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad	 1:22:00 - 	LMT	1893 Apr
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
			 2:00	Poland	CET	1946
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 2:00	-	EET	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1994
# IATA SSIM (1994-02) says Kaliningrad is at UTC+2; guess 1994 change.
			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT
Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:20 -	LMT	1880
			 2:30:20 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1922 Oct
			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 2:00	-	EET	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD
Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:36 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 3:00	-	KUYT	1957 Mar # Kuybyshev Time
			 4:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 3:00	1:00	KUYST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 3:00	-	SAMT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Samara Time
			 4:00	Russia	SAM%sT
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:34 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 4:00	-	SVET	1957 Mar # Sverdlovsk Time
			 5:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 4:00	1:00	SVEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 4:00	-	SVET	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 5:00	Russia	YEK%sT	# Yekaterinburg Time
Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:36 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 5:00	-	OMST	1957 Mar # Omsk Time
			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 5:00	1:00	OMSST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 5:00	-	OMST	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 6:00	-	NOVT	1957 Mar # Novosibirsk Time
			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 6:00	1:00	NOVST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 6:00	-	NOVT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1994 Mar 27 2:00s
			 6:00	1:00	NOVST	1994 Sep 25 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:20 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 6:00	-	KRAT	1957 Mar # Krasnoyarsk Time
			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 6:00	1:00	KRAST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 6:00	-	KRAT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT
Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:20 -	LMT	1880
			 6:57:20 -	IMT	1924 May  2 # Irkutsk Mean Time
			 7:00	-	IRKT	1957 Mar # Irkutsk Time
			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 7:00	1:00	IRKST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 7:00	-	IRKT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT
Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:40 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 8:00	-	YAKT	1957 Mar # Yakutsk Time
			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 8:00	1:00	YAKST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 8:00	-	YAKT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT
Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:44 -	LMT	1880
			 8:47:44 -	VMT	1924 May  2 # Vladivostok MT
			 9:00	-	VLAT	1957 Mar # Vladivostok Time
			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 9:00	1:00	VLAST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 9:00	-	VLAT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT
Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			10:00	-	MAGT	1957 Mar # Magadan Time
			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			10:00	1:00	MAGST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			10:00	-	MAGT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT
# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			11:00	-	PETT	1957 Mar # P-K Time
			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			11:00	1:00	PETST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			11:00	-	PETT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			12:00	Russia	PET%sT
Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			12:00	-	ANAT	1957 Mar # Anadyr Time
			13:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			12:00	1:00	ANAST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			12:00	-	ANAT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			13:00	Russia	ANA%sT

# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava

# Slovenia
# see Yugoslavia

# Spain
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1917	only	-	May	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1917	1919	-	Oct	 6	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1918	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1919	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Oct	 4	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	May	22	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Mar	22	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1940	only	-	Mar	16	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	May	 2	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	Sep	 1	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1943	1946	-	Apr	Sat>=13	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Spain	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1944	only	-	Oct	10	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1945	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1946	only	-	Sep	30	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Apr	Sat>=13	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1976	only	-	Mar	27	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1976	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1977	1978	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Madrid	-0:14:44 -	LMT	1901
			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1946 Sep 30
			 1:00	Spain	CE%sT	1979
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone	Africa/Ceuta	-0:21:16 -	LMT	1901
			 0:00	-	WET	1918 May  6 23:00
			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1918 Oct  7 23:00
			 0:00	-	WET	1924
			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1929
			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
			 1:00	-	CET	1986
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
			-1:00	-	CANT	1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6 0:00s
			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28 0:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.

# Sweden

# From: msb@sq.com (Mark Brader)
# <a href="news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com">
# Subject: Re: Gregorian reform -- a part of locale?
# </a>
# Date: 1996-07-06
#
# In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian.  Sweden
# decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
# those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap
# year after 1696 would be in 1744 -- putting the whole country on a calendar
# different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years.
#
# However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through;
# they did, after all, have a leap year that year.  And one in 1708.  In 1712
# they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that
# year!...
#
# Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner,
# getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule.
#
# (A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers
# produced the following references to support it: "Tiderakning och historia"
# by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tiderakning och
# kalendervasen" by Lars-Olof Lode'n (no date was given).)

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:12:12	-	SMT	1900 Jan  1  1:00 # Stockholm MT
			1:00	-	CET	1916 Apr 14 23:00s
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Sep 30 23:00s
			1:00	-	CET	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Switzerland
# The Gregorian calendar was introduced gradually in Switzerland,
# by omitting leap years during 1583-1812.
# From Howse (1988), p 82:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
# From Shanks (1991):
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1848 Sep 12
			0:29:44	-	BMT	1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
			1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Turkey
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks.
Rule	Turkey	1924	only	-	May	13	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1924	1925	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1925	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Shanks omits the first two transitions in 1940; go with Whitman.
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Dec	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1941	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1947	1950	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1949	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1950	only	-	Apr	19	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	May	Sun>=2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Nov	 4	3:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	5:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1975	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1975	1976	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1976	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1977	only	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1979	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1979	1982	-	Oct	Mon>=11	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Jul	31	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Istanbul	1:55:52 -	LMT	1880
			1:56:56	-	IMT	1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1978 Oct 15
			3:00	Turkey	TR%sT	1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1986
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.

# Ukraine
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Ukraine	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	UST	# Ukrainian Summer Time
Rule	Ukraine	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	KMT	# Kiev Mean Time
Rule	Ukraine	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	UDST	# Ukrainian Double Summer Time
Rule	Ukraine	1918	only	-	Sep	17	 0:00	1:00	UST
Rule	Ukraine	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	UDST
Rule	Ukraine	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	UST
Rule	Ukraine	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	KMT
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	UST
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Mar	21	23:00	2:00	UDST
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	UST
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	KMT
Rule	Crimea	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	CST	# Crimean Summer Time
Rule	Crimea	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	NMT	# Nikolayev Mean Time
Rule	Crimea	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	CDST	# Crimean Double Summer Time
Rule	Crimea	1918	only	-	Sep	17	 0:00	1:00	CST
Rule	Crimea	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	CDST
Rule	Crimea	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	CST
Rule	Crimea	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	NMT
Rule	Crimea	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	CST
Rule	Crimea	1921	only	-	Mar	21	23:00	2:00	CDST
Rule	Crimea	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	CST
Rule	Crimea	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	NMT
Rule	Crimea	1996	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00u	1:00	-
Rule	Crimea	1996	only	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00u	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kiev	2:02:04 -	LMT	1880
			2:02:04	Ukraine	%s	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990 Jul 17
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1996
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
Zone Europe/Simferopol	2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
			2:08:00	Crimea	%s	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-10-21):
# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that most of Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
# For now, guess it changed Feb 1.
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1994 Feb
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
			3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
			3:00	Crimea	MSK/MSD	1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Yugoslavia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	CET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
# Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
# Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
			1:00	-	CET	1982 Nov 27
			1:00	EU	CE%sT
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana	# Slovenia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo	# Bosnia and Herzegovina
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje	# Macedonia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb	# Croatia

###############################################################################

# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
#
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)

# ...
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
# From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann)
# Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp>
# ...
#
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
# years...
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
#
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
#
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
# UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho

# ...
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
# From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter)
# ...
#
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
#
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
# dates...
#
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
# in advance of normal time.
#
# ...
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
# INTERNET   : dik@cwi.nl
# BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# ...
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
# ...
# Monaco: has same DST as France.
# ...