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# @(#)europe	7.71

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999).
#
# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991,
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
#
# Other sources occasionally used include:
#
#	Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
#	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
#	which I found in the UCLA library.
#
#	Brazil's Departamento Servico da Hora (DSH),
#	<a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HISTHV.htm">
#	History of Summer Time
#	</a> (1998-09-21, in Portuguese)

#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
#		std dst
#		LMT	Local Mean Time
#	-4:00	AST	Atlantic
#	-3:00	WGT WGST Western Greenland*
#	-1:00	EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
#	 0:00	GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer
#	 0:00	GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
#	 0:00	WET WEST Western Europe
#	 1:00	CET CEST Central Europe
#	 2:00	EET EEST Eastern Europe
#	 3:00	MSK MSD	Moscow
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04),
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
# ...
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
# ...
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
# in the Directive.


###############################################################################

# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06):
#
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
# of the text said:
#
# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
#
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longitude should
# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
#
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
#
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
#
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01.  We don't know as much
# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30):
# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
# One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.

# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.

# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
#
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.

# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
# From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john>
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.

# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14):
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time.  Look for the published
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."

# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).

# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST'; let's assume this is a typo.

# Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length
# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating
# and extending this list, which can be found in
# <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">
# History of legal time in Britain
# </a> (2000-02-12).

# From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06):
#
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
# </a>.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17):
#
# For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948.
#
# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect:
#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
#	1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
# It actually just had one transition.
#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight saving time throughout WW II.
# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
#     * GB-Eire changed standard time to 1 hour ahead of GMT on 1968-02-18.
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
#
# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks: 
#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
#	to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
#	conform with Great Britain.
# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
#
# The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful;
# we'll ignore it for now.
#     * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
#
#
# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
# and Frethun run in CT.
# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.

# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
# Under this directive, the Minister for Justice in Ireland makes appropriate
# regulations. I spoke this morning with the Secretary of the Department of
# Justice (tel +353 1 678 9711) who confirmed to me that the correct name is
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Summer Time Act, 1916
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	May	21	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Mar	24	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Sep	30	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Sep	29	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Mar	28	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Oct	25	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	0	GMT
# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	1924	-	Sep	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1924	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1926	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1927	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1928	1929	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1930	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1931	1932	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1933	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1934	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1935	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1936	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1938	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Nov	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
Rule	GB-Eire	1940	only	-	Feb	Sun>=23	2:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	only	-	May	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	1943	-	Aug	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
Rule	GB-Eire	1942	1944	-	Apr	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
Rule	GB-Eire	1944	only	-	Sep	Sun>=16	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Apr	Mon>=2	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Jul	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	1946	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The Summer Time Act, 1947
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Mar	16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Apr	13	1:00s	2:00	BDST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Aug	10	1:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Nov	 2	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Oct	31	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Oct	30	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Apr	Sun>=14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00s	0	GMT
# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	1960	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1954	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1955	1956	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1957	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1958	1959	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1960	only	-	Apr	Sun>=9	2:00s	1:00	BST
# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1963	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
Rule	GB-Eire	1964	1967	-	Mar	Sun>=19	2:00s	1:00	BST
# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
Rule	GB-Eire	1968	only	-	Feb	18	2:00s	1:00	BST
# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
#	(no summer time)
# The Summer Time Act, 1972
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
Rule	GB-Eire	1981	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire 1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00u	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
Rule	GB-Eire 1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	1:00u	0	GMT
# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
# See EU for rules starting in 1996.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Dec  1
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
Zone	Europe/Belfast	-0:23:40 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT
			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1 2:00s   # Irish Summer Time
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/BST
Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:21 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT
			-0:25:21 1:00	IST	1916 Oct  1 2:00s
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1921 Dec  6 # independence
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1940 Feb 25 2:00
			 0:00	1:00	IST	1946 Oct  6 2:00
			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16 2:00
			 0:00	1:00	IST	1947 Nov  2 2:00
			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18 2:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1968 Oct 27
			 1:00	-	IST	1971 Oct 31 2:00u
			 0:00	GB-Eire	GMT/IST	1996
			 0:00	EU	GMT/IST

###############################################################################

# Continental Europe

# EU rules are for the European Union, previously known as the EC, EEC,
# Common Market, etc.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	EU	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EU	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EU	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EU	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-

# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	W-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	W-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-

# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1917	1918	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1940	only	-	Apr	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule	C-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	C-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	C-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# E-Eur differs from EU only in that E-Eur switches at midnight local time.
Rule	E-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	E-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	E-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	E-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	MST	# Moscow Summer Time
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	MMT	# Moscow Mean Time
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	MDST	# Moscow Double Summer Time
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	1:00	MST
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	MDST
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
Rule	Russia	1984	1991	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Russia	1985	1991	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
#
Rule	Russia	1992	only	-	Mar	lastSat	 23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1992	only	-	Sep	lastSat	 23:00	0	-
Rule	Russia	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Russia	1993	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Russia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	WET		0:00	EU	WE%sT
Zone	CET		1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT
Zone	MET		1:00	C-Eur	ME%sT
Zone	EET		2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.

# From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12):
# The official German names ... are
#
#	Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
#	Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
#
# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
#
#	Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
#	Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
#	Postfach 3345
#	D-38023 Braunschweig
#	phone: +49 531 592-0
#
# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
# department for time and frequency transmission.  He explained that the
# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
#
#	Central European Time (CET)         = UTC+01:00
#	Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00


# Albania
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Albania	1940	only	-	Jun	16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Apr	10	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	May	 8	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Apr	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tirane	1:19:20 -	LMT	1914
			1:00	-	CET	1940 Jun 16
			1:00	Albania	CE%sT	1984 Jul
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Andorra
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
			1:00	-	CET	1985 Mar 31 2:00
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Austria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Sep	13	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1946	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Austria	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:20 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Jun 16 3:00
			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1940 Apr  1 2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			1:00	Austria	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Belarus
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:50	-	MMT	1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 28
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul  3
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	-	EET	1992 Mar 29 0:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1992 Sep 27 0:00s
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT

# Belgium
#
# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
#	Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
#	Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe annee, 1991
#	(Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
#	pp 8-9.
# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
#	Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie <pascal@belnet.be> for these references.
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
# 
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Belgium	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1922	1927	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
# DSH writes that a royal decree of 1926-02-22 specified the Sun following 3rd
# Sat in Apr (except if it's Easter, in which case it's one Sunday earlier),
# to Sun following 1st Sat in Oct, and that a royal decree of 1928-09-15
# changed the transition times to 02:00 GMT.
Rule	Belgium	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1928	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1929	only	-	Apr	21	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1930	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1931	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1932	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1933	only	-	Mar	26	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1934	only	-	Apr	 8	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1935	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1936	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1937	only	-	Apr	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1938	only	-	Mar	27	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Apr	16	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1944	only	-	Sep	17	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	May	19	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:30 -	LMT	1880
			0:17:30	-	BMT	1892 May  1 12:00 # Brussels MT
			0:00	-	WET	1914 Nov  8
			1:00	-	CET	1916 May  1  0:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Nov 11 11:00u
			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 20  2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep  3
			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Bosnia and Herzegovina
# see Yugoslavia

# Bulgaria
#
# From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1980	1982	-	Apr	Sat<=7	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Bulg	1980	only	-	Sep	29	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1981	only	-	Sep	27	 2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Sofia	1:33:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:56:56	-	IMT	1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  3:00
			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
			2:00	Bulg	EE%sT	1982 Sep 26  2:00
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Croatia
# see Yugosloavia

# Czech Republic
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1946	only	-	May	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1947	only	-	Apr	20	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
			0:57:44	-	PMT	1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 17 2:00s
			1:00	Czech	CE%sT	1979
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1940	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Aug	15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	May	 1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	Sep	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	May	 4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	May	 9	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	Aug	 8	 2:00s	0	-
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways
# about many of the above dates; go with Shanks.
#
# For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
			 0:50:20 -	CMT	1894 Apr  # Copenhagen Mean Time
			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			 1:00	Denmark	CE%sT	1980
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Faeroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11	# Torshavn
			 0:00	-	WET	1981
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# Greenland joined the EU as part of Denmark, obtained home rule on 1979-05-01,
# and left the EU on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
# rules at least through 1984.  Shanks says Scoresbysund and Godthab
# used C-Eur rules after 1980, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says they use EU
# rules since at least 1991.  Assume EU rules since 1980.

#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Thule	1993	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Thule	1993	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormit
			-2:00	-	CGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
			-2:00	C-Eur	CG%sT	1981 Mar 29
			-1:00	EU	EG%sT
Zone America/Godthab	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
			-3:00	EU	WG%sT
Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik
			-4:00	Thule	A%sT

# Estonia
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15):
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
#
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-10-28):
# [IATA SSIM (1992/1996) claims that the Baltic republics switch at 01:00s,
# but a relative confirms that Estonia still switches at 02:00s, writing:]
# ``I do not [know] exactly but there are some little different
# (confusing) rules for International Air and Railway Transport Schedules
# conversion in Sunday connected with end of summer time in Estonia....
# A discussion is running about the summer time efficiency and effect on
# human physiology.  It seems that Estonia maybe will not change to
# summer time next spring.''

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-11-04), heavily edited:
# <a href="http://trip.rk.ee/cgi-bin/thw?${BASE}=akt&${OOHTML}=rtd&TA=1998&TO=1&AN=1390">
# The 1998-09-22 Estonian time law
# </a>
# refers to the Eighth Directive and cites the association agreement between
# the EU and Estonia, ratified by the Estonian law (RT II 1995, 22--27, 120).
#
# I also asked [my relative] whether they use any standard abbreviation
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).

# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
# Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
# for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
# after that. 

# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
# the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
			1:39:00	-	TMT	1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1919 Jul
			1:39:00	-	TMT	1921 May
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Sep 22
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar 26 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep 24 2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998 Sep 22
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	1999 Nov  1
			2:00	-	EET

# Finland
#
# From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994):
# Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981.
# Go with Strang instead.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:52 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:39:52	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
			2:00	Finland	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29 2:00
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# France
#
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	France	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
# DSH writes that a law of 1923-05-24 specified 3rd Sat in Apr at 23:00 to 1st
# Sat in Oct at 24:00; and that in 1930, because of Easter, the transitions
# were Apr 12 and Oct 5.  Go with Shanks.
Rule	France	1922	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1923	only	-	May	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1930	only	-	Apr	12	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1933	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris,
# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco).
Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
# Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
# but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12),
# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	2:00	M
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
# Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Mar	28	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Sep	26	 1:00	0	-
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15  0:01
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
# Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT.
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1940 Jun 14 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 25
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16  3:00
			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Germany

# From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29):
# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
#
#	<a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm">
#	Realisation of Legal Time in Germany
#	</a>

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes
# the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem)
# (1961-11-25), which gives dates only.  Guess 3:00 transition times.
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	May	31	3:00	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Sep	23	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	S
# The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times;
# go with Shanks.
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	May	11	2:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Jun	29	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Germany	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr 2 2:00
			1:00	Germany	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Gibraltar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14 2:00
			1:00	-	CET	1982
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Greece
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1941	only	-	Apr	 7	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Apr	12	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Nov	26	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Oct	10	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1977	only	-	Sep	26	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1978	only	-	Sep	24	4:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Apr	 1	9:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Sep	29	2:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
			1:34:52	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT
			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1941 Apr 30
			1:00	Greece	CE%sT	1944 Apr  4
			2:00	Greece	EE%sT	1981
			# Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981;
			# go with EU instead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Hungary
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Apr	 1	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	29	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Apr	15	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Sep	15	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	 3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Oct	23	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	May	23	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	Oct	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	 1:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Oct
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918
			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1941 Apr  6  2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  1 23:00
			1:00	Hungary	CE%sT	1980 Sep 28  2:00s
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Iceland
#
# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06):
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
#
# (1993-12-05):
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
# Iceland Almanak.
#
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
#
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
#
# (1993-12-10):
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
#	the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
#	(old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
# might mean something else (???).
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29):
# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points.
# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that
# Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iceland	1917	1918	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1918	only	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Nov	29	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Nov	 3	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Mar	 2	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Nov	 2	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Mar	 8	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Oct	25	 1:00s	0	-
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iceland	1943	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	S
# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:27:24 -	LMT	1837
			-1:27:48 -	RMT	1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
			-1:00	Iceland	IS%sT	1968 Apr 7 1:00s
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Italy
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri
# <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html">
# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14)
# </a>
# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
#
# year	FP	Shanks (S)	Whitman (W)	Go with:
# 1916	06-03	06-03 24:00	06-03 00:00	FP & W
#	09-30	09-30 24:00	09-30 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
# 1917	04-01	03-31 24:00	03-31 00:00	FP & S
#	09-30	09-29 24:00	09-30 01:00	FP & W
# 1918	03-09	03-09 24:00	03-09 00:00	FP & S
#	10-06	10-05 24:00	10-06 01:00	FP & W
# 1919	03-01	03-01 24:00	03-01 00:00	FP & S
#	10-04	10-04 24:00	10-04 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
# 1920	03-20	03-20 24:00	03-20 00:00	FP & S
#	09-18	09-18 24:00	10-01 01:00	FP; guess 24:00s
# 1944	04-02	04-03 02:00			S (see C-Eur)
#	09-16	10-02 03:00			FP; guess 24:00s
# 1945	09-14	09-16 24:00			FP; guess 24:00s
# 1970	05-21	05-31 00:00			S
#	09-20	09-27 00:00			S
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Mar	10	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Mar	 2	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Mar	21	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Sep	19	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1940	only	-	Jun	15	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1944	only	-	Sep	17	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Sep	15	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Mar	17	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Mar	16	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Feb	29	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1966	1968	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1966	1969	-	Sep	Sun>=22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1969	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	May	31	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1971	1972	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1971	only	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1972	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1973	1974	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1974	only	-	May	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1975	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1975	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1976	only	-	May	30	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1977	1979	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Italy	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Sep 22
			0:49:56	-	RMT	1893 Nov	# Rome Mean Time
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Jul
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/Vatican
Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/San_Marino

# Latvia

# From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17):

# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
#
# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
#
# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
#
# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward.  The end of
# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
#
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.

# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Latvia	1989	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:24	-	LMT	1880
			1:36:24	-	RMT	1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
			1:36:24	-	RMT	1919 Apr  1 2:00
			1:36:24	1:00	LST	1919 May 22 3:00
			1:36:24	-	RMT	1926 May 11
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct 13
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
			2:00	Latvia	EE%sT	1997 Jan 21
			2:00	EU	EE%sT	2000 Feb 29
			2:00	-	EET

# Liechtenstein
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vaduz	0:38:04 -	LMT	1894 Jun
			1:00	-	CET	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Lithuania

# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.

# From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07):
# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.

# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
# via Steffen Thorsen:
# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
# to be valid here starting from October 31,
# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
# already done by Estonia. 

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
			1:24:00	-	WMT	1917	    # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:35:36	-	KMT	1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
			1:00	-	CET	1920 Jul 12
			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
			1:00	-	CET	1940 Aug  3
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1998
			2:00	-	EET	1998 Mar 29 1:00u
			1:00	EU	CE%sT	1999 Oct 31 1:00u
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Apr	28	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Sep	17	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Oct	 5	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Oct	24	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Oct	26	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1924	1928	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1925	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lux	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
			1:00	Lux	CE%sT	1918 Nov 25
			0:00	Lux	WE%sT	1929 Oct  6 2:00s
			0:00	Belgium	WE%sT	1940 May 14 3:00
			1:00	C-Eur	WE%sT	1944 Sep 18 3:00
			1:00	Belgium	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Macedonia
# see Yugoslavia

# Malta
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Sep	29	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Apr	21	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Sep	16	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1975	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2	# Valletta
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
			1:00	Italy	CE%sT	1973 Mar 31
			1:00	Malta	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Moldova
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Chisinau	1:55:20 -	LMT	1880
			1:55	-	CMT	1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1940 Aug 15
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1941 Jul 17
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 24
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1990 May 6
			2:00	-	EET	1991
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
Zone	Europe/Tiraspol	1:58:32	-	LMT	1880
			1:55	-	CMT	1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1940 Aug 15
			2:00	1:00	EEST	1941 Jul 17
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Aug 24
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00
			2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD

# Monaco
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
			0:00	France	WE%sT	1945 Sep 16 3:00
			1:00	France	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Netherlands
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman.
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	2:00s	1:00	NST	# Netherlands Summer Time
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00s	0	AMT	# Amsterdam Mean Time
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Apr	16	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	AMT
# Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Sep	Mon>=24	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1922	1936	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1923	only	-	Jun	 1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1924	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1925	only	-	Jun	 5	2:00s	1:00	NST
# For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1926	1931	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1932	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1933	1936	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	-
# Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1938	1939	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	May	20	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:28 -	LMT	1892 May
			0:19:28	Neth	%s	1937 Jul
			0:20	Neth	NE%sT	1940 May 16 0:40
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			1:00	Neth	CE%sT	1977
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Norway
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks.
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	May	22	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
# Whitman says DST observed 1935-08-11/1942-11-01, then 1943-03-29/10-04,
# 1944-04-03/10-02, and 1945-04-01/10-01; go with Shanks.
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1959	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Norway	1959	1965	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1965	only	-	Apr	25	2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Oslo	0:43:00 -	LMT	1895
			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1940 Aug 10 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			1:00	Norway	CE%sT	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
Link	Europe/Oslo	Arctic/Longyearbyen
# From Whitman:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen	-1:00	-	EGT

# Poland
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1947	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1947	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1948	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1957	only	-	Jun	 2	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1958	only	-	Mar	30	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1959	only	-	May	31	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1959	1961	-	Oct	Sun>=1	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1960	only	-	Apr	 3	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1961	1964	-	May	Sun>=25	1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
			1:24:00	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1918 Sep 16 3:00
			2:00	Poland	EE%sT	1922 Jun
			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1940 Jun 23 2:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
			1:00	Poland	CE%sT	1977 Apr  3 1:00
			1:00	W-Eur	CE%sT	1999
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_
# <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml">
# http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24)
# </a>
# says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00.
# Stick with W-Eur for now.
#
# From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10):
# According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would
# follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not
# worth further discussion.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10):
# Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997
# or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details.  Assume they switched to
# EU rules in 1999.
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Portugal
#
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
#
# Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-12):
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) reports several 1991-09 and 1992-09 transitions
# at 02:00u, not 01:00u.  Assume that these are typos.
# IATA SSIM (1991/1992) reports that the Azores were at -1:00.
# IATA SSIM (1993-02) says +0:00; later issues (through 1996-09) say -1:00.
# Guess that the Azores changed to EU rules in 1992 (since that's when Portugal
# harmonized with the EU), and that they stayed +0:00 that winter.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# DSH writes that despite Decree 1,469 (1915), the change to the clocks was not
# done every year, depending on what Spain did, because of railroad schedules.
# Go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Jun	17	23:00	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Port	1917	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1917	1921	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1918	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1919	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1920	only	-	Feb	29	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1921	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1931	1932	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1934	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
# Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1940	only	-	Feb	24	23:00s	1:00	S
# Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1940	1941	-	Oct	 5	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1941	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Mar	Sat>=8	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Apr	25	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Aug	15	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Oct	Sat>=24	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1943	only	-	Apr	17	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Port	1943	1945	-	Aug	Sat>=25	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1944	1945	-	Apr	Sat>=21	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
# Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Mar	27	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Sep	25	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1978	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1979	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:32 -	LMT	1884
			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1911 May 24   # Lisbon Mean Time
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00
			 1:00	-	CET	1976 Sep 26 1:00
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			 0:00	W-Eur	WE%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT	1996 Mar 31 1:00u
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884		# Ponta Delgada
			-1:55	-	HMT	1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time
			-2:00	Port	AZO%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Azores Time
			-1:00	Port	AZO%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			-1:00	W-Eur	AZO%sT	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT	1993 Mar 28 1:00u
			-1:00	EU	AZO%sT
Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884		# Funchal
			-1:08	-	FMT	1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time
			-1:00	Port	MAD%sT	1966 Apr  3 2:00 # Madeira Time
			 0:00	Port	WE%sT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT

# Romania
#
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
# 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
# the same year as Bulgaria.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Romania	1932	only	-	May	21	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1932	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Romania	1933	1939	-	Apr	Sun>=2	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	May	27	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Romania	1991	1993	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
			1:44:24	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24	# Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1981 Mar 29 2:00s
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	Romania	EE%sT	1994
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1997
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Russia

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12):
# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
# are from Andrey A. Chernov.  The rest is from Shanks, except we follow
# Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
#
# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04):
# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
# Unix-like OSes by several developer groups (e.g. Demos group, Kiae group)....
# The next step was the UUCP network, the Relcom predecessor
# (used mainly for mail), and MSK/MSD was actively used there.
#
# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-10-30):
# According to a friend of mine who rode the Trans-Siberian Railroad from
# Moscow to Irkutsk in 1995, public air and rail transport in Russia ...
# still follows Moscow time, no matter where in Russia it is located.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad	 1:22:00 - 	LMT	1893 Apr
			 1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945
			 2:00	Poland	CE%sT	1946
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT
Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:20 -	LMT	1880
			 2:30	-	MMT	1916 Jul  3 # Moscow Mean Time
			 2:30:48 Russia	%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1922 Oct
			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	EE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD
Zone Europe/Samara	 3:20:36 -	LMT	1919 Jul  1 2:00
			 3:00	-	KUYT	1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev
			 4:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1989 Mar 26 2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 2:00	Russia	KUY%sT	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 3:00	-	KUYT	1991 Oct 20 3:00
			 4:00	Russia	SAM%sT	# Samara Time
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:24 -	LMT	1919 Jul 15 4:00
			 4:00	-	SVET	1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
			 5:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 4:00	Russia	SVE%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 5:00	Russia	YEK%sT	# Yekaterinburg Time
Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:36 -	LMT	1919 Nov 14
			 5:00	-	OMST	1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 5:00	Russia	OMS%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	OMS%sT
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 14 6:00
			 6:00	-	NOVT	1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	NOV%sT	1993 May 23 # says Shanks
			 6:00	Russia	NOV%sT
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk	 6:11:20 -	LMT	1920 Jan  6
			 6:00	-	KRAT	1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	KRA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	KRA%sT
Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:20 -	LMT	1880
			 6:57:20 -	IMT	1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
			 7:00	-	IRKT	1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	IRK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	IRK%sT
Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:40 -	LMT	1919 Dec 15
			 8:00	-	YAKT	1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	YAK%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	YAK%sT
Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:44 -	LMT	1922 Nov 15
			 9:00	-	VLAT	1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	VLA%sST	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			10:00	Russia	VLA%sT
Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			10:00	-	MAGT	1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			10:00	Russia	MAG%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			11:00	Russia	MAG%sT
# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1922 Nov 10
			11:00	-	PETT	1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
			12:00	Russia	PET%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			11:00	Russia	PET%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			12:00	Russia	PET%sT
Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			12:00	-	ANAT	1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
			13:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1982 Apr  1 0:00s
			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			11:00	Russia	ANA%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			12:00	Russia	ANA%sT

# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava

# Slovenia
# see Yugoslavia

# Spain
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1917	only	-	May	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1917	1919	-	Oct	 6	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1918	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1919	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Oct	 4	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	May	22	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Mar	22	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1940	only	-	Mar	16	23:00s	1:00	S
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	May	 2	22:00s	2:00	M # Midsummer
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	Sep	 1	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1943	1946	-	Apr	Sat>=13	22:00s	2:00	M
Rule	Spain	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1944	only	-	Oct	10	22:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1945	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1946	only	-	Sep	30	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Apr	Sat>=13	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1976	only	-	Mar	27	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1976	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1977	1978	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	S
Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule SpainAfrica 1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Madrid	-0:14:44 -	LMT	1901
			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1946 Sep 30
			 1:00	Spain	CE%sT	1979
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone	Africa/Ceuta	-0:21:16 -	LMT	1901
			 0:00	-	WET	1918 May  6 23:00
			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1918 Oct  7 23:00
			 0:00	-	WET	1924
			 0:00	Spain	WE%sT	1929
			 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
			 1:00	-	CET	1986
			 1:00	EU	CE%sT
Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
			-1:00	-	CANT	1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6 0:00s
			 0:00	1:00	WEST	1980 Sep 28 0:00s
			 0:00	EU	WE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.

# Sweden
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:12:12	-	SMT	1900 Jan  1  1:00 # Stockholm MT
			1:00	-	CET	1916 Apr 14 23:00s
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1916 Sep 30 23:00s
			1:00	-	CET	1980
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Switzerland
# From Howse:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
# From Shanks:
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1848 Sep 12
			0:29:44	-	BMT	1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
			1:00	Swiss	CE%sT	1981
			1:00	EU	CE%sT

# Turkey
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks.
Rule	Turkey	1924	only	-	May	13	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1924	1925	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1925	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Dec	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1941	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1947	1950	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1949	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1950	only	-	Apr	19	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	May	Sun>=2	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Nov	 4	3:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	5:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1975	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1975	1976	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1976	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1977	only	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1979	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1979	1982	-	Oct	Mon>=11	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Jul	31	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Istanbul	1:55:52 -	LMT	1880
			1:56:56	-	IMT	1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1978 Oct 15
			3:00	Turkey	TR%sT	1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
			2:00	Turkey	EE%sT	1986
			2:00	C-Eur	EE%sT	1991
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.

# Ukraine
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
Zone Europe/Kiev	2:02:04 -	LMT	1880
			2:02:04	-	KMT	1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 20
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Nov  6
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
			2:00	-	EET	1992
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
Zone Europe/Uzhgorod	1:29:12 -	LMT	1890 Oct
			1:00	-	CET	1940
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Oct
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1944 Oct 26
			1:00	-	CET	1945 Jun 29
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
			1:00	-	CET	1991 Mar 31 3:00
			2:00	-	EET	1992
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
# Zaporozh'ye has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
Zone Europe/Zaporozhye	2:20:40 -	LMT	1880
			2:20	-	CUT	1924 May  2 # Central Ukraine T
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Aug 25
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1943 Oct 25
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1991 Mar 31 2:00
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1995
			2:00	EU	EE%sT
# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
Zone Europe/Simferopol	2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
			2:16	-	SMT	1924 May  2 # Simferopol Mean T
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Nov
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1944 Apr 13
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1990
			3:00	-	MSK	1990 Jul  1 2:00
			2:00	-	EET	1992
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12):
# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
# Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened
# sometime between the 1994 DST switches.  For now, guess it changed in May.
			2:00	E-Eur	EE%sT	1994 May
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
			3:00	E-Eur	MSK/MSD	1996 Mar 31 3:00s
			3:00	1:00	MSD	1996 Oct 27 3:00s
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
			3:00	Russia	MSK/MSD	1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
			2:00	EU	EE%sT

# Yugoslavia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	CET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	C-Eur	CE%sT	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
# Metod Kozelj <metod.kozelj@rzs-hm.si> reports that the legal date of
# transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
# Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
			1:00	-	CET	1982 Nov 27
			1:00	EU	CE%sT
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana	# Slovenia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo	# Bosnia and Herzegovina
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje	# Macedonia
Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb	# Croatia

###############################################################################

# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
#
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)

# ...
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
# From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann)
# Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp>
# ...
#
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
# years...
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
#
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
#
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
# UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho

# ...
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
# From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter)
# ...
#
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
#
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
# dates...
#
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
# in advance of normal time.
#
# ...
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
# INTERNET   : dik@cwi.nl
# BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# ...
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
# ...
# Monaco: has same DST as France.
# ...