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# @(#)northamerica	7.78
# also includes Central America and the Caribbean

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-22):
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).

###############################################################################

# United States

# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
# Howse writes (pp 121-125) that time zones were invented by
# Professor Charles Ferdinand Dowd (1825-1904),
# Principal of Temple Grove Ladies' Seminary (Saratoga Springs, NY).
# His pamphlet ``A System of National Time for Railroads'' (1870)
# was the result of his proposals at the Convention of Railroad Trunk Lines
# in New York City (1869-10).  His 1870 proposal was based on Washington, DC,
# but in 1872-05 he moved the proposed origin to Greenwich.
# His proposal was adopted by the railroads on 1883-11-18 at 12:00,
# and the most of the country soon followed suit.

# From Paul Eggert (2005-04-16):
# That 1883 transition occurred at 12:00 new time, not at 12:00 old time.
# See p 46 of David Prerau, Seize the daylight, Thunder's Mouth Press (2005).

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# A good source for time zone historical data in the US is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The American Atlas (5th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
# Make sure you have the errata sheet; the book is somewhat useless without it.
# It is the source for most of the pre-1991 US and Puerto Rico entries below.

# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
# Daylight Saving Time was first suggested as a joke by Benjamin Franklin
# in his whimsical essay ``An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost
# of Light'' published in the Journal de Paris (1784-04-26).
# Not everyone is happy with the results:
#
#	I don't really care how time is reckoned so long as there is some
#	agreement about it, but I object to being told that I am saving
#	daylight when my reason tells me that I am doing nothing of the kind.
#	I even object to the implication that I am wasting something
#	valuable if I stay in bed after the sun has risen.  As an admirer
#	of moonlight I resent the bossy insistence of those who want to
#	reduce my time for enjoying it.  At the back of the Daylight Saving
#	scheme I detect the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager
#	to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make
#	them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves.
#
#	-- Robertson Davies, The diary of Samuel Marchbanks,
#	   Clarke, Irwin (1947), XIX, Sunday
#
# For more about the first ten years of DST in the United States, see
# Robert Garland's <a href="http://www.clpgh.org/exhibit/dst.html">
# Ten years of daylight saving from the Pittsburgh standpoint
# (Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, 1927)</a>.
#
# Shanks says that DST was called "War Time" in the US in 1918 and 1919.
# However, DST was imposed by the Standard Time Act of 1918, which
# was the first nationwide legal time standard, and apparently
# time was just called "Standard Time" or "Daylight Saving Time".

# From Arthur David Olson:
# US Daylight Saving Time ended on the last Sunday of *October* in 1974.
# See, for example, the front page of the Saturday, 1974-10-26
# and Sunday, 1974-10-27 editions of the Washington Post.

# From Arthur David Olson:
# Before the Uniform Time Act of 1966 took effect in 1967, observance of
# Daylight Saving Time in the US was by local option, except during wartime.

# From Arthur David Olson (2000-09-25):
# Last night I heard part of a rebroadcast of a 1945 Arch Oboler radio drama.
# In the introduction, Oboler spoke of "Eastern Peace Time."
# An AltaVista search turned up
# <a href="http://rowayton.org/rhs/hstaug45.html">:
# "When the time is announced over the radio now, it is 'Eastern Peace
# Time' instead of the old familiar 'Eastern War Time.'  Peace is wonderful."
# </a> (August 1945) by way of confirmation.

# From Joseph Gallant citing
# George H. Douglas, _The Early Days of Radio Broadcasting_ (1987):
# At 7 P.M. (Eastern War Time) [on 1945-08-14], the networks were set
# to switch to London for Attlee's address, but the American people
# never got to hear his speech live. According to one press account,
# CBS' Bob Trout was first to announce the word of Japan's surrender,
# but a few seconds later, NBC, ABC and Mutual also flashed the word
# of surrender, all of whom interrupting the bells of Big Ben in
# London which were to precede Mr. Attlee's speech.

# From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09): It was Robert St John, not Bob Trout.  From
# Myrna Oliver's obituary of St John on page B16 of today's Los Angeles Times:
#
# ... a war-weary U.S. clung to radios, awaiting word of Japan's surrender.
# Any announcement from Asia would reach St. John's New York newsroom on a
# wire service teletype machine, which had prescribed signals for major news.
# Associated Press, for example, would ring five bells before spewing out
# typed copy of an important story, and 10 bells for news "of transcendental
# importance."
#
# On Aug. 14, stalling while talking steadily into the NBC networks' open
# microphone, St. John heard five bells and waited only to hear a sixth bell,
# before announcing confidently: "Ladies and gentlemen, World War II is over.
# The Japanese have agreed to our surrender terms."
#
# He had scored a 20-second scoop on other broadcasters.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	US	1918	1919	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	1918	1919	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	US	1942	only	-	Feb	9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	US	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	US	1945	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
Rule	US	1967	2006	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	US	1967	1973	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	1974	only	-	Jan	6	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	1975	only	-	Feb	23	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	1976	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	1987	2006	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	2007	max	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	US	2007	max	-	Nov	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# ...Alaska (and Hawaii) had the timezone names changed in 1967.
#    old			 new
#    Pacific Standard Time(PST)  -same-
#    Yukon Standard Time(YST)    -same-
#    Central Alaska S.T. (CAT)   Alaska-Hawaii St[an]dard Time (AHST)
#    Nome Standard Time (NT)     Bering Standard Time (BST)
#
# ...Alaska's timezone lines were redrawn in 1983 to give only 2 tz.
#    The YST zone now covers nearly all of the state, AHST just part
#    of the Aleutian islands.   No DST.

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# The tables below use `NST', not `NT', for Nome Standard Time.
# I invented `CAWT' for Central Alaska War Time.

# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
# USA  EASTERN       5 H  BEHIND UTC    NEW YORK, WASHINGTON
# USA  EASTERN       4 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
# USA  CENTRAL       6 H  BEHIND UTC    CHICAGO, HOUSTON
# USA  CENTRAL       5 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
# USA  MOUNTAIN      7 H  BEHIND UTC    DENVER
# USA  MOUNTAIN      6 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
# USA  PACIFIC       8 H  BEHIND UTC    L.A., SAN FRANCISCO
# USA  PACIFIC       7 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
# USA  ALASKA STD    9 H  BEHIND UTC    MOST OF ALASKA     (AKST)
# USA  ALASKA STD    8 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30 (AKDT)
# USA  ALEUTIAN     10 H  BEHIND UTC    ISLANDS WEST OF 170W
# USA  - " -         9 H  BEHIND UTC    APR 3 - OCT 30
# USA  HAWAII       10 H  BEHIND UTC
# USA  BERING       11 H  BEHIND UTC    SAMOA, MIDWAY

# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-21):
# The above dates are for 1988.
# Note the "AKST" and "AKDT" abbreviations, the claim that there's
# no DST in Samoa, and the claim that there is DST in Alaska and the
# Aleutians.

# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
# Legal standard time zone names, from United States Code (1982 Edition and
# Supplement III), Title 15, Chapter 6, Section 260 and forward.  First, names
# up to 1967-04-01 (when most provisions of the Uniform Time Act of 1966
# took effect), as explained in sections 263 and 261:
#	(none)
#	United States standard eastern time
#	United States standard mountain time
#	United States standard central time
#	United States standard Pacific time
#	(none)
#	United States standard Alaska time
#	(none)
# Next, names from 1967-04-01 until 1983-11-30 (the date for
# public law 98-181):
#	Atlantic standard time
#	eastern standard time
#	central standard time
#	mountain standard time
#	Pacific standard time
#	Yukon standard time
#	Alaska-Hawaii standard time
#	Bering standard time
# And after 1983-11-30:
#	Atlantic standard time
#	eastern standard time
#	central standard time
#	mountain standard time
#	Pacific standard time
#	Alaska standard time
#	Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
#	Samoa standard time
# The law doesn't give abbreviations.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08), following a heads-up from Rives McDow:
# Public law 106-564 (2000-12-23) introduced the abbreviation
# "Chamorro Standard Time" for time in Guam and the Northern Marianas.
# See the file "australasia".
 
# From Arthur David Olson, 2005-08-09
# The following was signed into law on 2005-08-08.
#
# H.R. 6, Energy Policy Act of 2005, SEC. 110. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS.
#   (a) Amendment- Section 3(a) of the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (15
#   U.S.C. 260a(a)) is amended--
#     (1) by striking `first Sunday of April' and inserting `second
#     Sunday of March'; and
#     (2) by striking `last Sunday of October' and inserting `first
#     Sunday of November'.
#   (b) Effective Date- Subsection (a) shall take effect 1 year after the
#   date of enactment of this Act or March 1, 2007, whichever is later.
#   (c) Report to Congress- Not later than 9 months after the effective
#   date stated in subsection (b), the Secretary shall report to Congress
#   on the impact of this section on energy consumption in the United
#   States.
#   (d) Right to Revert- Congress retains the right to revert the
#   Daylight Saving Time back to the 2005 time schedules once the
#   Department study is complete.

# US eastern time, represented by New York

# Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, most of Florida,
# Georgia, southeast Indiana (Clark, Dearborn, Floyd, Harrison, and
# Ohio counties), eastern Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
# New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio,
# Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, eastern Tennessee,
# Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia

# From Dave Cantor (2004-11-02):
# Early this summer I had the occasion to visit the Mount Washington
# Observatory weather station atop (of course!) Mount Washington [, NH]....
# One of the staff members said that the station was on Eastern Standard Time
# and didn't change their clocks for Daylight Saving ... so that their
# reports will always have times which are 5 hours behind UTC.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	NYC	1920	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	NYC	1920	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	NYC	1921	1966	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	NYC	1921	1954	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	NYC	1955	1966	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/New_York	-4:56:02 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:03:58
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1920
			-5:00	NYC	E%sT	1942
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1946
			-5:00	NYC	E%sT	1967
			-5:00	US	E%sT

# US central time, represented by Chicago

# Alabama, Arkansas, Florida panhandle (Bay, Calhoun, Escambia,
# Gulf, Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and
# Washington counties), Illinois, western Indiana
# (Gibson, Jasper, Lake, LaPorte, Newton, Porter, Posey, Spencer,
# Vanderburgh, and Warrick counties), Iowa, most of Kansas, western
# Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, eastern
# Nebraska, eastern North Dakota, Oklahoma, eastern South Dakota,
# western Tennessee, most of Texas, Wisconsin

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	Chicago	1920	only	-	Jun	13	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Chicago	1920	1921	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Chicago	1921	only	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Chicago	1922	1966	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Chicago	1922	1954	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Chicago	1955	1966	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Chicago	-5:50:36 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:09:24
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1920
			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1936 Mar  1 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1936 Nov 15 2:00
			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1942
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
			-6:00	Chicago	C%sT	1967
			-6:00	US	C%sT
# Oliver County, ND switched from mountain to central time on 1992-10-25.
Zone America/North_Dakota/Center -6:45:12 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:14:48
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1992 Oct 25 02:00
			-6:00	US	C%sT

# US mountain time, represented by Denver
#
# Colorado, far western Kansas, Montana, western
# Nebraska, Nevada border (Jackpot, Owyhee, and Mountain City),
# New Mexico, southwestern North Dakota, far eastern Oregon,
# western South Dakota, far western Texas (El Paso County, Hudspeth County,
# and Pine Springs and Nickel Creek in Culberson County), Utah, Wyoming
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	Denver	1920	1921	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Denver	1920	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Denver	1921	only	-	May	22	2:00	0	S
Rule	Denver	1965	1966	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Denver	1965	1966	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Denver	-6:59:56 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:00:04
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1920
			-7:00	Denver	M%sT	1942
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1946
			-7:00	Denver	M%sT	1967
			-7:00	US	M%sT

# US Pacific time, represented by Los Angeles
#
# California, northern Idaho (Benewah, Bonner, Boundary, Clearwater,
# Idaho, Kootenai, Latah, Lewis, Nez Perce, and Shoshone counties),
# most of Nevada, most of Oregon, and Washington
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	CA	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	CA	1949	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	0	S
Rule	CA	1950	1966	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	CA	1950	1961	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	CA	1962	1966	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Los_Angeles -7:52:58 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:07:02
			-8:00	US	P%sT	1946
			-8:00	CA	P%sT	1967
			-8:00	US	P%sT

# Alaska
# AK%sT is the modern abbreviation for -9:00 per USNO.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
# Howse writes that Alaska switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar,
# and from east-of-GMT to west-of-GMT days, when the US bought it from Russia.
# This was on 1867-10-18, a Friday; the previous day was 1867-10-06 Julian,
# also a Friday.  Include only the time zone part of this transition,
# ignoring the switch from Julian to Gregorian, since we can't represent
# the Julian calendar.
#
# As far as we know, none of the exact locations mentioned below were
# permanently inhabited in 1867 by anyone using either calendar.
# (Yakutat was colonized by the Russians in 1799, but the settlement
# was destroyed in 1805 by a Yakutat-kon war party.)  However, there
# were nearby inhabitants in some cases and for our purposes perhaps
# it's best to simply use the official transition.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Juneau	 15:02:19 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
			 -8:57:41 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20 12:00
			 -8:00	-	PST	1942
			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1946
			 -8:00	-	PST	1969
			 -8:00	US	P%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
Zone America/Yakutat	 14:41:05 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
			 -9:18:55 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20 12:00
			 -9:00	-	YST	1942
			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1946
			 -9:00	-	YST	1969
			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
Zone America/Anchorage	 14:00:24 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
			 -9:59:36 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20 12:00
			-10:00	-	CAT	1942
			-10:00	US	CAT/CAWT 1946
			-10:00	-	CAT	1967 Apr
			-10:00	-	AHST	1969
			-10:00	US	AH%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
Zone America/Nome	 12:58:21 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
			-11:01:38 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20 12:00
			-11:00	-	NST	1942
			-11:00	US	N%sT	1946
			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr
			-11:00	-	BST	1969
			-11:00	US	B%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
			 -9:00	US	Y%sT	1983 Nov 30
			 -9:00	US	AK%sT
Zone America/Adak	 12:13:21 -	LMT	1867 Oct 18
			-11:46:38 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20 12:00
			-11:00	-	NST	1942
			-11:00	US	N%sT	1946
			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr
			-11:00	-	BST	1969
			-11:00	US	B%sT	1983 Oct 30 2:00
			-10:00	US	AH%sT	1983 Nov 30
			-10:00	US	HA%sT
# The following switches don't quite make our 1970 cutoff.
#
# Shanks writes that part of southwest Alaska (e.g. Aniak)
# switched from -11:00 to -10:00 on 1968-09-22 at 02:00,
# and another part (e.g. Akiak) made the same switch five weeks later.
#
# From David Flater (2004-11-09):
# In e-mail, 2004-11-02, Ray Hudson, historian/liaison to the Unalaska
# Historic Preservation Commission, provided this information, which
# suggests that Unalaska deviated from statutory time from early 1967
# possibly until 1983:
#
#  Minutes of the Unalaska City Council Meeting, January 10, 1967:
#  "Except for St. Paul and Akutan, Unalaska is the only important
#  location not on Alaska Standard Time.  The following resolution was
#  made by William Robinson and seconded by Henry Swanson:  Be it
#  resolved that the City of Unalaska hereby goes to Alaska Standard
#  Time as of midnight Friday, January 13, 1967 (1 A.M. Saturday,
#  January 14, Alaska Standard Time.)  This resolution was passed with
#  three votes for and one against."

# Hawaii
#
# From Arthur David Olson:
# And then there's Hawaii.
# DST was observed for one day in 1933;
# standard time was changed by half an hour in 1947;
# it's always standard as of 1986.
#
# From Paul Eggert:
# Shanks says the 1933 experiment lasted for three weeks.  Go with Shanks.
#
Zone Pacific/Honolulu	-10:31:26 -	LMT	1900 Jan  1 12:00
			-10:30	-	HST	1933 Apr 30 2:00
			-10:30	1:00	HDT	1933 May 21 2:00
			-10:30	US	H%sT	1947 Jun  8 2:00
			-10:00	-	HST

# Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.

# Arizona mostly uses MST.

# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-20):
#
# The information in the rest of this paragraph is derived from the
# <a href="http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/links/daylight.htm">
# Daylight Saving Time web page (2002-01-23)</a> maintained by the
# Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records.
# Between 1944-01-01 and 1944-04-01 the State of Arizona used standard
# time, but by federal law railroads, airlines, bus lines, military
# personnel, and some engaged in interstate commerce continued to
# observe war (i.e., daylight saving) time.  The 1944-03-17 Phoenix
# Gazette says that was the date the law changed, and that 04-01 was
# the date the state's clocks would change.  In 1945 the State of
# Arizona used standard time all year, again with exceptions only as
# mandated by federal law.  Arizona observed DST in 1967, but Arizona
# Laws 1968, ch. 183 (effective 1968-03-21) repealed DST.
#
# Shanks says the 1944 experiment came to an end on 1944-03-17.
# Go with the Arizona State Library instead.

Zone America/Phoenix	-7:28:18 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 11:31:42
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1944 Jan  1 00:01
			-7:00	-	MST	1944 Apr  1 00:01
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1944 Oct  1 00:01
			-7:00	-	MST	1967
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1968 Mar 21
			-7:00	-	MST
# From Arthur David Olson (1988-02-13):
# A writer from the Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc.,
# notes in private correspondence dated 1987-12-28 that "Presently, only the
# Navajo Nation participates in the Daylight Saving Time policy, due to its
# large size and location in three states."  (The "only" means that other
# tribal nations don't use DST.)

Link America/Denver America/Shiprock

# Southern Idaho (Ada, Adams, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, Blaine,
# Boise, Bonneville, Butte, Camas, Canyon, Caribou, Cassia, Clark,
# Custer, Elmore, Franklin, Fremont, Gem, Gooding, Jefferson, Jerome,
# Lemhi, Lincoln, Madison, Minidoka, Oneida, Owyhee, Payette, Power,
# Teton, Twin Falls, Valley, Washington counties) and eastern Oregon
# switched four weeks late in 1974.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Boise	-7:44:49 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:15:11
			-8:00	US	P%sT	1923 May 13 2:00
			-7:00	US	M%sT	1974
			-7:00	-	MST	1974 Feb  3 2:00
			-7:00	US	M%sT

# Indiana
#
# For a map of Indiana's time zone regions, see:
# <a href="http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html">
# What time is it in Indiana?
# </a> (1999-04-06)
#
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# Indiana generally observes either EST all year, or CST/CDT,
# but areas near Cincinnati and Louisville use those cities' timekeeping
# and in 1969 and 1970 the whole state observed daylight time;
# and there are other exceptions as noted below.
# Shanks partitions Indiana into 345 regions, each with its own time history,
# and writes ``Even newspaper reports present contradictory information.''
# Fortunately, most of the complexity occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
#
# Since 1970, EST-only Indiana has been like America/Indianapolis,
# with exceptions noted below for Crawford, Starke, and Switzerland counties.
# The parts of Indiana not listed below have been like America/Chicago,
# America/Louisville, or America/New_York.
#
# Other than Indianapolis, the Indiana place names are so nondescript
# that they would be ambiguous if we left them at the `America' level.
# So we reluctantly put them all in a subdirectory `America/Indiana'.
#
# Most of EST-only Indiana last observed DST in 1970.

# From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
# http://www.mccsc.edu/time.html says that Indiana will use DST starting 2006,
# and that many counties may switch either to Central or to Eastern time.
# The county-by-county decisions have not been made yet, so for now assume
# that no counties will switch: this assumption is most likely wrong,
# but it's the best we can do for now.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule Indianapolis 1941	only	-	Jun	22	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Indianapolis 1941	1954	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Indianapolis 1946	1954	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Indiana/Indianapolis -5:44:38 - LMT 1883 Nov 18 12:15:22
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1920
			-6:00 Indianapolis C%sT	1942
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
			-6:00 Indianapolis C%sT	1955 Apr 24 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1957 Sep 29 2:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1958 Apr 27 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1969
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1971
			-5:00	-	EST	2006
			-5:00	US	E%sT
#
# Part of Crawford County, Indiana, last observed DST in 1975,
# and left its clocks alone in 1974.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	Marengo	1951	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Marengo	1951	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Marengo	1954	1960	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Marengo	1954	1960	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Indiana/Marengo -5:45:23 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:14:37
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1951
			-6:00	Marengo	C%sT	1961 Apr 30 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1969
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1974 Jan  6 2:00
			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1974 Oct 27 2:00
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1976
			-5:00	-	EST	2006
			-5:00	US	E%sT
#
# Starke County, Indiana
# From Arthur David Olson (1991-10-28):
# An article on page A3 of the Sunday, 1991-10-27 Washington Post
# notes that Starke County switched from Central time to Eastern time as of
# 1991-10-27.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	Starke	1947	1961	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Starke	1947	1954	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Starke	1955	1956	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Starke	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Starke	1959	1961	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Indiana/Knox -5:46:30 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:13:30
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1947
			-6:00	Starke	C%sT	1962 Apr 29 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1963 Oct 27 2:00
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1991 Oct 27 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	2006
			-5:00	US	E%sT
#
# Switzerland County, Indiana, last observed DST in 1972.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Indiana/Vevay -5:40:16 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:19:44
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1954 Apr 25 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1969
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1973
			-5:00	-	EST	2006
			-5:00	US	E%sT

# Part of Kentucky left its clocks alone in 1974.
# This also includes a part of Indiana immediately adjacent to Louisville.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule Louisville	1921	only	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Louisville	1921	only	-	Sep	1	2:00	0	S
Rule Louisville	1941	1961	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Louisville	1941	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Louisville	1946	only	-	Jun	2	2:00	0	S
Rule Louisville	1950	1955	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Louisville	1956	1960	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Kentucky/Louisville -5:43:02 -	LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:16:58
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1921
			-6:00 Louisville C%sT	1942
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
			-6:00 Louisville C%sT	1961 Jul 23 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1968
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1974 Jan  6 2:00
			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1974 Oct 27 2:00
			-5:00	US	E%sT
#
# Wayne, Clinton, and Russell Counties, Kentucky
#
# From
# <a href="http://www.lake-cumberland.com/life/archive/news990129time.shtml">
# Lake Cumberland LIFE
# </a> (1999-01-29) via WKYM-101.7:
# Clinton County has joined Wayne County in asking the DoT to change from
# the Central to the Eastern time zone....  The Wayne County government made
# the same request in December.  And while Russell County officials have not
# taken action, the majority of respondents to a poll conducted there in
# August indicated they would like to change to "fast time" also.
# The three Lake Cumberland counties are the farthest east of any U.S.
# location in the Central time zone.
#
# From Rich Wales (2000-08-29):
# After prolonged debate, and despite continuing deep differences of opinion,
# Wayne County (central Kentucky) is switching from Central (-0600) to Eastern
# (-0500) time.  They won't "fall back" this year.  See Sara Shipley,
# The difference an hour makes, Nando Times (2000-08-29 15:33 -0400).
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-16):
# The final rule was published in the
# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2000_register&docid=fr17au00-22">
# Federal Register 65, 160 (2000-08-17), page 50154-50158.
# </a>
#
Zone America/Kentucky/Monticello -5:39:24 - LMT	1883 Nov 18 12:20:36
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
			-6:00	-	CST	1968
			-6:00	US	C%sT	2000 Oct 29  2:00
			-5:00	US	E%sT


# From Rives McDow (2000-08-30):
# Here ... are all the changes in the US since 1985.
# Kearny County, KS (put all of county on central;
#	previously split between MST and CST) ... 1990-10
# Starke County, IN (from CST to EST) ... 1991-10
# Oliver County, ND (from MST to CST) ... 1992-10
# West Wendover, NV (from PST TO MST) ... 1999-10
# Wayne County, KY (from CST to EST) ... 2000-10
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-07-17):
# We don't know where the line used to be within Kearny County, KS,
# so omit that change for now.
# See America/Indiana/Knox for the Starke County, IN change.
# See America/North_Dakota/Center for the Oliver County, ND change.
# West Wendover, NV officially switched from Pacific to mountain time on
# 1999-10-31.  See the
# <a href="http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1999_register&docid=fr21oc99-15">
# Federal Register 64, 203 (1999-10-21), page 56705-56707.
# </a>
# However, the Federal Register says that West Wendover already operated
# on mountain time, and the rule merely made this official;
# hence a separate tz entry is not needed.

# Michigan
#
# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# Michigan didn't observe DST from 1968 to 1973.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-31):
# Shanks writes that Michigan started using standard time on 1885-09-18,
# but Howse writes (pp 124-125, referring to Popular Astronomy, 1901-01)
# that Detroit kept
#
#	local time until 1900 when the City Council decreed that clocks should
#	be put back twenty-eight minutes to Central Standard Time.  Half the
#	city obeyed, half refused.  After considerable debate, the decision
#	was rescinded and the city reverted to Sun time.  A derisive offer to
#	erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the
#	Committee on Sewers.  Then, in 1905, Central time was adopted
#	by city vote.
#
# This story is too entertaining to be false, so go with Howse over Shanks.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
# Garland (1927) writes ``Cleveland and Detroit advanced their clocks
# one hour in 1914.''  This change is not in Shanks.  We have no more
# info, so omit this for now.
#
# Most of Michigan observed DST from 1973 on, but was a bit late in 1975.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule	Detroit	1948	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Detroit	1948	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Detroit	1967	only	-	Jun	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Detroit	1967	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Detroit	-5:32:11 -	LMT	1905
			-6:00	-	CST	1915 May 15 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1942
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1946
			-5:00	Detroit	E%sT	1973
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1975
			-5:00	-	EST	1975 Apr 27 2:00
			-5:00	US	E%sT
#
# The Michigan border with Wisconsin switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER
Rule Menominee	1946	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Menominee	1946	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Menominee	1966	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Menominee	1966	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Menominee	-5:50:27 -	LMT	1885 Sep 18 12:00
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1946
			-6:00 Menominee	C%sT	1969 Apr 27 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1973 Apr 29 2:00
			-6:00	US	C%sT

# Navassa
# administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service
# claimed by US under the provisions of the 1856 Guano Islands Act
# also claimed by Haiti
# occupied 1857/1900 by the Navassa Phosphate Co
# US lighthouse 1917/1996-09
# currently uninhabited
# see Mark Fineman, ``An Isle Rich in Guano and Discord'',
# _Los Angeles Times_ (1998-11-10), A1, A10; it cites
# Jimmy Skaggs, _The Great Guano Rush_ (1994).

# Old names, for S5 users

# Link	LINK-FROM		LINK-TO
Link	America/New_York	EST5EDT
Link	America/Chicago		CST6CDT
Link	America/Denver		MST7MDT
Link	America/Los_Angeles	PST8PDT
Link	America/Indianapolis	EST
Link	America/Phoenix		MST
Link	Pacific/Honolulu	HST

################################################################################


# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the US is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999).
#
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990,
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# Other sources occasionally used include:
#
#	Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
#	Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated),
#	which I found in the UCLA library.
#
#	<a href="http://www.pettswoodvillage.co.uk/Daylight_Savings_William_Willett.pdf">
#	William Willett, The Waste of Daylight, 19th edition
#	</a> (1914-03)
#
# See the `europe' file for Greenland.

# Canada

# From Alain LaBont<e'> (1994-11-14):
# I post here the time zone abbreviations standardized in Canada
# for both English and French in the CAN/CSA-Z234.4-89 standard....
#
#	UTC	Standard time	Daylight savings time
#	offset	French	English	French	English
#	-2:30	-	-	HAT	NDT
#	-3	-	-	HAA	ADT
#	-3:30	HNT	NST	-	-
#	-4	HNA	AST	HAE	EDT
#	-5	HNE	EST	HAC	CDT
#	-6	HNC	CST	HAR	MDT
#	-7	HNR	MST	HAP	PDT
#	-8	HNP	PST	HAY	YDT
#	-9	HNY	YST	-	-
#
#	HN: Heure Normale	ST: Standard Time
#	HA: Heure Avanc<e'>e	DT: Daylight saving Time
#
#	A: de l'Atlantique	Atlantic
#	C: du Centre		Central
#	E: de l'Est		Eastern
#	M:			Mountain
#	N:			Newfoundland
#	P: du Pacifique		Pacific
#	R: des Rocheuses
#	T: de Terre-Neuve
#	Y: du Yukon		Yukon
#
# From Paul Eggert (1994-11-22):
# Alas, this sort of thing must be handled by localization software.

# Unless otherwise specified, the data for Canada are all from Shanks.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# H. David Matthews and Mary Vincent's map
# <a href="http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/SO98/geomap.htm">
# "It's about TIME", _Canadian Geographic_ (September-October 1998)
# </a> contains detailed boundaries for regions observing nonstandard
# time and daylight saving time arrangements in Canada circa 1998.
#
# INMS, the Institute for National Measurement Standards in Ottawa, has
# <a href="http://www.nrc.ca/inms/time/tze.html">
# information about standard and daylight saving time zones in Canada.
# </a> (updated periodically).
# Its unofficial information is often taken from Matthews and Vincent.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Canada	1918	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Canada	1918	only	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	S
Rule	Canada	1942	only	-	Feb	 9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	Canada	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	Canada	1945	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
Rule	Canada	1974	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Canada	1974	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Canada	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D


# Newfoundland (and far southeast Labrador)

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Labrador should use NST/NDT,
# but the only part of Labrador that follows the rules is the
# southeast corner, including Port Hope Simpson and Mary's Harbour,
# but excluding, say, Black Tickle.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	StJohns	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00	0	S
# Whitman gives 1919 Apr 5 and 1920 Apr 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	StJohns	1919	only	-	May	 5	23:00	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1919	only	-	Aug	12	23:00	0	S
# For 1931-1935 Whitman gives Apr same date; go with Shanks.
Rule	StJohns	1920	1935	-	May	Sun>=1	23:00	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1920	1935	-	Oct	lastSun	23:00	0	S
# For 1936-1941 Whitman gives May Sun>=8 and Oct Sun>=1; go with Shanks.
Rule	StJohns	1936	1941	-	May	Mon>=9	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1936	1941	-	Oct	Mon>=2	0:00	0	S
# Whitman gives the following transitions:
# 1942 03-01/12-31, 1943 05-30/09-05, 1944 07-10/09-02, 1945 01-01/10-07
# but go with Shanks and assume they used Canadian rules.
# For 1946-9 Whitman gives May 5,4,9,1 - Oct 1,5,3,2, and for 1950 he gives
# Apr 30 - Sep 24; go with Shanks.
Rule	StJohns	1946	1950	-	May	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1946	1950	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00	0	S
Rule	StJohns	1951	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1951	1959	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	StJohns	1960	1986	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Newfoundland switches
# at 00:01 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
Rule	StJohns	1987	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:01	1:00	D
Rule	StJohns	1987	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:01	0	S
Rule	StJohns	1988	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:01	2:00	DD
Rule	StJohns	1989	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:01	1:00	D
# St John's has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/St_Johns	-3:30:52 -	LMT	1884
			-3:30:52 StJohns N%sT	1918
			-3:30:52 Canada	N%sT	1919
			-3:30:52 StJohns N%sT	1935 Mar 30
			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT	1942 May 11
			-3:30	Canada	N%sT	1946
			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT

# most of east Labrador

# The name `Happy Valley-Goose Bay' is too long; use `Goose Bay'.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Goose_Bay	-4:01:40 -	LMT	1884 # Happy Valley-Goose Bay
			-3:30:52 -	NST	1918
			-3:30:52 Canada N%sT	1919
			-3:30:52 -	NST	1935 Mar 30
			-3:30	-	NST	1936
			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT	1942 May 11
			-3:30	Canada	N%sT	1946
			-3:30	StJohns	N%sT	1966 Mar 15 2:00
			-4:00	StJohns	A%sT


# west Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward I

# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Halifax.
# Many locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1972;
# Glace Bay, NS is the largest that we know of.
# Shanks also writes that Liverpool, NS was the only town in Canada to observe
# DST in 1971 but not 1970; for now we'll assume this is a typo.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, New Brunswick switches
# at 00:01 local time.  FIXME: verify and create a new Zone for this.


# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule Halifax	1916	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1920	only	-	May	 9	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1920	only	-	Aug	29	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1921	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1921	1922	-	Sep	 5	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1922	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1923	1925	-	May	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1923	only	-	Sep	 4	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1924	only	-	Sep	15	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1925	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1926	only	-	May	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1926	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1927	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1927	only	-	Sep	26	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1928	1931	-	May	Sun>=8	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1928	only	-	Sep	 9	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1929	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1930	only	-	Sep	15	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1931	1932	-	Sep	Mon>=24	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1932	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1933	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1933	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1934	only	-	May	20	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1934	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1935	only	-	Jun	 2	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1935	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1936	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1936	only	-	Sep	14	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1937	1938	-	May	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1937	1941	-	Sep	Mon>=24	0:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1939	only	-	May	28	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1940	1941	-	May	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1946	1949	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1946	1949	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1951	1954	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1951	1954	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1956	1959	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule Halifax	1956	1959	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1962	1973	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule Halifax	1962	1973	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Halifax	-4:14:24 -	LMT	1902 Jun 15
			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1918
			-4:00	Canada	A%sT	1919
			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
			-4:00	Canada	A%sT	1946
			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1974
			-4:00	Canada	A%sT
Zone America/Glace_Bay	-3:59:48 -	LMT	1902 Jun 15
			-4:00	Canada	A%sT	1953
			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1954
			-4:00	-	AST	1972
			-4:00	Halifax	A%sT	1974
			-4:00	Canada	A%sT


# Ontario, Quebec

# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of Ontario has been like Toronto,
# and most of Quebec has been like Montreal.
# Thunder Bay skipped DST in 1973.
# Many smaller locales did not observe peacetime DST until 1974;
# Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
# Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.

# From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
# [According to the Toronto Star] Orillia, Ontario, adopted DST
# effective Saturday, 1912-06-22, 22:00; the article mentions that
# Port Arthur (now part of Thunder Bay, Ontario) as well as Moose Jaw
# have already done so.  In Orillia DST was to run until Saturday,
# 1912-08-31 (no time mentioned), but it was met with considerable
# hostility from certain segments of the public, and was revoked after
# only two weeks -- I copied it as Saturday, 1912-07-07, 22:00, but
# presumably that should be -07-06.  (1912-06-19, -07-12; also letters
# earlier in June).
#
# Kenora, Ontario, was to abandon DST on 1914-06-01 (-05-21).

# From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
# Mark Brader writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
# says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
# but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
# He also writes that the
# <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html">
# Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
# </a>
# says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
# Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
# concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
# For what it's worth, Shanks says that Atikokan has agreed with
# Rainy River ever since standard time was introduced.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Atikokan, Pickle Lake, and
# New Osnaburgh observe CST all year, that Big Trout Lake observes
# CST/CDT, and that Upsala and Shebandowan observe EST/EDT, all in
# violation of the official Ontario rules.
# They also write that Quebec east of the -63 meridian is supposed to
# observe AST, but residents as far east as Natashquan use EST/EDT,
# and residents east of Natashquan use AST.
# We probably need Zones for far east Quebec and for Atikokan,
# but we don't know when their practices started.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Mont	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1917	only	-	Apr	24	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1919	only	-	Mar	31	2:30	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1919	only	-	Oct	25	2:30	0	S
Rule	Mont	1920	only	-	May	 2	2:30	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1920	1922	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:30	0	S
Rule	Mont	1921	only	-	May	 1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1922	only	-	Apr	30	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1924	only	-	May	17	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1924	1926	-	Sep	lastSun	2:30	0	S
Rule	Mont	1925	1926	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# The 1927-to-1937 rules can be expressed more simply as
# Rule	Mont	1927	1937	-	Apr	lastSat	24:00	1:00	D
# Rule	Mont	1927	1937	-	Sep	lastSat	24:00	0	S
# The rules below avoid use of 24:00
# (which pre-1998 versions of zic cannot handle).
Rule	Mont	1927	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1927	1932	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1928	1931	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1932	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1933	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1933	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1934	1939	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1946	1973	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mont	1945	1948	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1949	1950	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1951	1956	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Mont	1957	1973	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S

Rule	Toronto	1919	only	-	Mar	30	23:30	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1919	only	-	Oct	26	0:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1920	only	-	May	 2	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1920	only	-	Sep	26	0:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1921	only	-	May	15	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1921	only	-	Sep	15	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1922	1923	-	May	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
# Shanks says 1923-09-19; assume it's a typo and that "-16" was meant.
Rule	Toronto	1922	1926	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1924	1927	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# The 1927-to-1939 rules can be expressed more simply as
# Rule	Toronto	1927	1937	-	Sep	Sun>=25	2:00	0	S
# Rule	Toronto	1928	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=25	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	Toronto	1938	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	Toronto	1938	1939	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# The rules below avoid use of Sun>=25
# (which pre-2004 versions of zic cannot handle).
Rule	Toronto	1927	1932	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1928	1931	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1932	only	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1933	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1933	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1934	1939	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1945	1946	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1946	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1947	1949	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1947	1948	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1949	only	-	Nov	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1950	1973	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Toronto	1950	only	-	Nov	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Toronto	1951	1956	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Shanks says Toronto ended DST a week early in 1971, namely on 1971-10-24,
# but Mark Brader wrote (2003-05-31) that he checked the 1971-10-30 issue
# of the Toronto Star, and it said that DST ended 1971-10-31 as usual.
Rule	Toronto	1957	1973	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S

# From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
# Willett (1914-03) writes (p. 17) "In the Cities of Fort William, and
# Port Arthur, Ontario, the principle of the Bill has been in
# operation for the past three years, and in the City of Moose Jaw,
# Saskatchewan, for one year."

# From David Bryan via Tory Tronrud, Director/Curator,
# Thunder Bay Museum (2003-11-12):
# There is some suggestion, however, that, by-law or not, daylight
# savings time was being practiced in Fort William and Port Arthur
# before 1909.... [I]n 1910, the line between the Eastern and Central
# Time Zones was permanently moved about two hundred miles west to
# include the Thunder Bay area....  When Canada adopted daylight
# savings time in 1916, Fort William and Port Arthur, having done so
# already, did not change their clocks....  During the Second World
# War,... [t]he cities agreed to implement DST during the summer
# months for the remainder of the war years.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Montreal	-4:54:16 -	LMT	1884
			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1918
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1919
			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1946
			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1974
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
Zone America/Toronto	-5:17:32 -	LMT	1895
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1919
			-5:00	Toronto	E%sT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1946
			-5:00	Toronto	E%sT	1974
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
Zone America/Thunder_Bay -5:57:00 -	LMT	1895
			-6:00	-	CST	1910
			-5:00	-	EST	1942
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1970
			-5:00	Mont	E%sT	1973
			-5:00	-	EST	1974
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
Zone America/Nipigon	-5:53:04 -	LMT	1895
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1940 Sep 29
			-5:00	1:00	EDT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
Zone America/Rainy_River -6:17:56 -	LMT	1895
			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	1940 Sep 29
			-6:00	1:00	CDT	1942 Feb  9 2:00s
			-6:00	Canada	C%sT


# Manitoba

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Winn	1916	only	-	Apr	23	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1916	only	-	Sep	17	0:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1918	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1918	only	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1937	only	-	May	16	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1937	only	-	Sep	26	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1942	only	-	Feb	 9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	Winn	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	Winn	1945	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1946	only	-	May	12	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1946	only	-	Oct	13	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1947	1949	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1947	1949	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1950	only	-	May	 1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1950	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1951	1960	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1951	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1959	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1960	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1963	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1963	only	-	Sep	22	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1966	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Winn	1966	1986	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Winn	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# INMS (2000-09-12) says that, since 1988 at least, Manitoba switches from
# DST at 03:00 local time.  For now, assume it started in 1987.
Rule	Winn	1987	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Winnipeg	-6:28:36 -	LMT	1887 Jul 16
			-6:00	Winn	C%sT


# Saskatchewan

# From Mark Brader (2003-07-26):
# The first actual adoption of DST in Canada was at the municipal
# level.  As the [Toronto] Star put it (1912-06-07), "While people
# elsewhere have long been talking of legislation to save daylight,
# the city of Moose Jaw [Saskatchewan] has acted on its own hook."
# DST in Moose Jaw began on Saturday, 1912-06-01 (no time mentioned:
# presumably late evening, as below), and would run until "the end of
# the summer".  The discrepancy between municipal time and railroad
# time was noted.

# From Paul Eggert (2003-07-27):
# Willett (1914-03) notes that DST "has been in operation ... in the
# City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, for one year."

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Regina.
# Some western towns (e.g. Swift Current) switched from MST/MDT to CST in 1972.
# Other western towns (e.g. Lloydminster) are like Edmonton.
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Denare Beach and Creighton
# are like Winnipeg, in violation of Saskatchewan law.

# From W. Jones (1992-11-06):
# The. . .below is based on information I got from our law library, the
# provincial archives, and the provincial Community Services department.
# A precise history would require digging through newspaper archives, and
# since you didn't say what you wanted, I didn't bother.
#
# Saskatchewan is split by a time zone meridian (105W) and over the years
# the boundary became pretty ragged as communities near it reevaluated
# their affiliations in one direction or the other.  In 1965 a provincial
# referendum favoured legislating common time practices.
#
# On 15 April 1966 the Time Act (c. T-14, Revised Statutes of
# Saskatchewan 1978) was proclaimed, and established that the eastern
# part of Saskatchewan would use CST year round, that districts in
# northwest Saskatchewan would by default follow CST but could opt to
# follow Mountain Time rules (thus 1 hour difference in the winter and
# zero in the summer), and that districts in southwest Saskatchewan would
# by default follow MT but could opt to follow CST.
#
# It took a few years for the dust to settle (I know one story of a town
# on one time zone having its school in another, such that a mom had to
# serve her family lunch in two shifts), but presently it seems that only
# a few towns on the border with Alberta (e.g. Lloydminster) follow MT
# rules any more; all other districts appear to have used CST year round
# since sometime in the 1960s.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Regina	1918	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Regina	1918	only	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1930	1934	-	May	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Regina	1930	1934	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1937	1941	-	Apr	Sun>=8	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Regina	1937	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	0:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1938	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1939	1941	-	Oct	Sun>=8	0:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1942	only	-	Feb	 9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	Regina	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	Regina	1945	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1946	only	-	Apr	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Regina	1946	only	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1947	1957	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Regina	1947	1957	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Regina	1959	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Regina	1959	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
#
Rule	Swift	1957	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Swift	1957	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Swift	1959	1961	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Swift	1959	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Swift	1960	1961	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Regina	-6:58:36 -	LMT	1905 Sep
			-7:00	Regina	M%sT	1960 Apr lastSun 2:00
			-6:00	-	CST
Zone America/Swift_Current -7:11:20 -	LMT	1905 Sep
			-7:00	Canada	M%sT	1946 Apr lastSun 2:00
			-7:00	Regina	M%sT	1950
			-7:00	Swift	M%sT	1972 Apr lastSun 2:00
			-6:00	-	CST


# Alberta

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Edm	1918	1919	-	Apr	Sun>=8	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Edm	1918	only	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1919	only	-	May	27	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1920	1923	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Edm	1920	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1921	1923	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1942	only	-	Feb	 9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	Edm	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	Edm	1945	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1947	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Edm	1947	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1967	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Edm	1967	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1969	only	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Edm	1969	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1972	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Edm	1972	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Edm	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Edmonton	-7:33:52 -	LMT	1906 Sep
			-7:00	Edm	M%sT


# British Columbia

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Shanks writes that since 1970 most of this region has been like Vancouver.
# Dawson Creek uses MST.  Much of east BC is like Edmonton.
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) write that Creston is like Dawson Creek.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Vanc	1918	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Vanc	1918	only	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	S
Rule	Vanc	1942	only	-	Feb	 9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	Vanc	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	Vanc	1945	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
Rule	Vanc	1946	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Vanc	1946	only	-	Oct	13	2:00	0	S
Rule	Vanc	1947	1961	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Vanc	1962	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Vanc	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Vancouver	-8:12:28 -	LMT	1884
			-8:00	Vanc	P%sT
Zone America/Dawson_Creek -8:00:56 -	LMT	1884
			-8:00	Canada	P%sT	1947
			-8:00	Vanc	P%sT	1972 Aug 30 2:00
			-7:00	-	MST


# Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon

# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
# Dawson switched to PST in 1973.  Inuvik switched to MST in 1979.
# Mathew Englander (1996-10-07) gives the following refs:
#	* 1967. Paragraph 28(34)(g) of the Interpretation Act, S.C. 1967-68,
#	c. 7 defines Yukon standard time as UTC-9.  This is still valid;
#	see Interpretation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21, s. 35(1).
#	* C.O. 1973/214 switched Yukon to PST on 1973-10-28 00:00.
#	* O.I.C. 1980/02 established DST.
#	* O.I.C. 1987/056 changed DST to Apr firstSun 2:00 to Oct lastSun 2:00.
# Shanks says Yukon's 1973-10-28 switch was at 2:00; go with Englander.

# From Rives McDow (1999-09-04):
# Nunavut ... moved ... to incorporate the whole territory into one time zone.
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt90903_13.html">
# Nunavut moves to single time zone Oct. 31
# </a>
#
# From Antoine Leca (1999-09-06):
# We then need to create a new timezone for the Kitikmeot region of Nunavut
# to differentiate it from the Yellowknife region.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
# <a href="http://www.nunavut.com/basicfacts/english/basicfacts_1territory.html">
# Basic Facts: The New Territory
# </a> (1999) reports that Pangnirtung operates on eastern time,
# and that Coral Harbour does not observe DST.  We don't know when
# Pangnirtung switched to eastern time; we'll guess 1995.

# From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
# On October 31, when the rest of Nunavut went to Central time,
# Pangnirtung wobbled.  Here is the result of their wobble:
#
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Central Time:
#
#	First Air, Power Corp, Nunavut Construction, Health Center, RCMP,
#	Eastern Arctic National Parks, A & D Specialist
#
# The following businesses and organizations in Pangnirtung use Eastern Time:
#
#	Hamlet office, All other businesses, Both schools, Airport operator
#
# This has made for an interesting situation there, which warranted the news.
# No one there that I spoke with seems concerned, or has plans to
# change the local methods of keeping time, as it evidently does not
# really interfere with any activities or make things difficult locally.
# They plan to celebrate New Year's turn-over twice, one hour apart,
# so it appears that the situation will last at least that long.
# The Nunavut Intergovernmental Affairs hopes that they will "come to
# their senses", but the locals evidently don't see any problem with
# the current state of affairs.

# From Michaela Rodrigue, writing in the
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut991130/nvt91119_17.html">
# Nunatsiaq News (1999-11-19)</a>:
# Clyde River, Pangnirtung and Sanikiluaq now operate with two time zones,
# central - or Nunavut time - for government offices, and eastern time
# for municipal offices and schools....  Igloolik [was similar but then]
# made the switch to central time on Saturday, Nov. 6.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-10-02):
# Matthews and Vincent (1998) say the following, but we lack histories
# for these potential new Zones.
#
# The Canadian Forces station at Alert uses Eastern Time while the
# handful of residents at the Eureka weather station [in the Central
# zone] skip daylight savings.  Baffin Island, which is crossed by the
# Central, Eastern and Atlantic Time zones only uses Eastern Time.
# Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and Pelly Bay all use Mountain instead of
# Central Time and Southampton Island [in the Central zone] is not
# required to use daylight savings.

# From
# <a href="http://www.nunatsiaq.com/archives/nunavut001130/nvt21110_02.html">
# Nunavut now has two time zones
# </a> (2000-11-10):
# The Nunavut government would allow its employees in Kugluktuk and
# Cambridge Bay to operate on central time year-round, putting them
# one hour behind the rest of Nunavut for six months during the winter.
# At the end of October the two communities had rebelled against
# Nunavut's unified time zone, refusing to shift to eastern time with
# the rest of the territory for the winter.  Cambridge Bay remained on
# central time, while Kugluktuk, even farther west, reverted to
# mountain time, which they had used before the advent of Nunavut's
# unified time zone in 1999.
#
# From Rives McDow (2001-01-20), quoting the Nunavut government:
# The preceding decision came into effect at midnight, Saturday Nov 4, 2000.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
# Let's just keep track of the official times for now.

# From Rives McDow (2001-03-07):
# The premier of Nunavut has issued a ministerial statement advising
# that effective 2001-04-01, the territory of Nunavut will revert
# back to three time zones (mountain, central, and eastern).  Of the
# cities in Nunavut, Coral Harbor is the only one that I know of that
# has said it will not observe dst, staying on EST year round.  I'm
# checking for more info, and will get back to you if I come up with
# more.
# [Also see <http://www.nunatsiaq.com/nunavut/nvt10309_06.html> (2001-03-09).]

# From Gwillim Law (2005-05-21):
# According to maps at
# http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/images/time_services/TZ01SWE.jpg
# http://inms-ienm.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/images/time_services/TZ01SSE.jpg
# (both dated 2003), and
# http://www.canadiangeographic.ca/Magazine/SO98/geomap.asp
# (from a 1998 Canadian Geographic article), the de facto and de jure time
# for Southampton Island (at the north end of Hudson Bay) is UTC-5 all year
# round.  Using Google, it's easy to find other websites that confirm this.
# I wasn't able to find how far back this time regimen goes, but since it
# predates the creation of Nunavut, it probably goes back many years....
# The Inuktitut name of Coral Harbour is Sallit, but it's rarely used.
#
# From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
# For lack of better information, assume that Southampton Island observed
# daylight saving only during wartime.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	NT_YK	1918	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	NT_YK	1918	only	-	Oct	27	2:00	0	S
Rule	NT_YK	1919	only	-	May	25	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	NT_YK	1919	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	NT_YK	1942	only	-	Feb	 9	2:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	NT_YK	1945	only	-	Aug	14	23:00u	1:00	P # Peace
Rule	NT_YK	1945	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
Rule	NT_YK	1965	only	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	2:00	DD
Rule	NT_YK	1965	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	NT_YK	1980	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	NT_YK	1980	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	NT_YK	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Pangnirtung -4:22:56 -	LMT	1884
			-4:00	NT_YK	A%sT	1995 Apr Sun>=1 2:00
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT	1999 Oct 31 2:00
			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
Zone America/Iqaluit	-4:33:52 -	LMT	1884 # Frobisher Bay before 1987
			-5:00	NT_YK	E%sT	1999 Oct 31 2:00
			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
			-5:00	Canada	E%sT
Zone America/Coral_Harbour -5:32:40 -	LMT	1884
			-5:00	NT_YK	E%sT	1946
			-5:00	-	EST
Zone America/Rankin_Inlet -6:08:40 -	LMT	1884
			-6:00	NT_YK	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	2001 Apr  1 3:00
			-6:00	Canada	C%sT
Zone America/Cambridge_Bay -7:00:20 -	LMT	1884
			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT	1999 Oct 31 2:00
			-6:00	Canada	C%sT	2000 Oct 29 2:00
			-5:00	-	EST	2000 Nov  5 0:00
			-6:00	-	CST	2001 Apr  1 3:00
			-7:00	Canada	M%sT
Zone America/Yellowknife -7:37:24 -	LMT	1884
			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT
Zone America/Inuvik	-8:54:00 -	LMT	1884
			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT	1979 Apr lastSun 2:00
			-7:00	NT_YK	M%sT
Zone America/Whitehorse	-9:00:12 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20
			-9:00	NT_YK	Y%sT	1966 Jul 1 2:00
			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT
Zone America/Dawson	-9:17:40 -	LMT	1900 Aug 20
			-9:00	NT_YK	Y%sT	1973 Oct 28 0:00
			-8:00	NT_YK	P%sT


###############################################################################

# Mexico

# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
# The Investigation and Analysis Service of the
# Mexican Library of Congress (MLoC) has published a
# <a href="http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/bibliot/publica/inveyana/polisoc/horver/">
# history of Mexican local time (in Spanish)
# </a>.
#
# Here are the discrepancies between Shanks and the MLoC.
# (In all cases we go with the MLoC.)
# Shanks reports that Baja was at -8:00 in 1922/1923.
# Shanks says the 1930 transition in Baja was 1930-11-16.
# Shanks reports no DST during summer 1931.
# Shanks reports a transition at 1932-03-30 23:00, not 1932-04-01.
# Shanks does not report transitions for Baja in 1945 or 1948.
# Shanks reports southern Mexico transitions on 1981-12-01, not 12-23.
# Shanks says Quintana Roo switched to -6:00 on 1982-12-02, and to -5:00
# on 1997-10-26 at 02:00.

# From Gwillim Law (2001-02-20):
# There are some other discrepancies between the Decrees page and the
# tz database.  I think they can best be explained by supposing that
# the researchers who prepared the Decrees page failed to find some of
# the relevant documents.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-07-26):
# Shanks gives 1942-04-01 instead of 1942-04-24, and omits the 1981
# and 1988 DST experiments.  Go with spin.com.mx.

# From Alan Perry (1996-02-15):
# A guy from our Mexico subsidiary finally found the Presidential Decree
# outlining the timezone changes in Mexico.
#
# ------------- Begin Forwarded Message -------------
#
# I finally got my hands on the Official Presidential Decree that sets up the
# rules for the DST changes. The rules are:
#
# 1. The country is divided in 3 timezones:
#    - Baja California Norte (the Mexico/BajaNorte TZ)
#    - Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora (the Mexico/BajaSur TZ)
#    - The rest of the country (the Mexico/General TZ)
#
# 2. From the first Sunday in April at 2:00 AM to the last Sunday in October
#    at 2:00 AM, the times in each zone are as follows:
#    BajaNorte: GMT+7
#    BajaSur:   GMT+6
#    General:   GMT+5
#
# 3. The rest of the year, the times are as follows:
#    BajaNorte: GMT+8
#    BajaSur:   GMT+7
#    General:   GMT+6
#
# The Decree was published in Mexico's Official Newspaper on January 4th.
#
# -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
# For an English translation of the decree, see
# <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html">
# ``Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover'' (1996-01-04).
# </a>

# From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
# The State of Quintana Roo has reverted back to central STD and DST times
# (i.e. UTC -0600 and -0500 as of 1998-08-02).

# From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
# Effective April 4, 1999 at 2:00 AM local time, Sonora changed to the time
# zone 5 hours from the International Date Line, and will not observe daylight
# savings time so as to stay on the same time zone as the southern part of
# Arizona year round.

# From Jesper Norgaard, translating
# <http://www.reforma.com/nacional/articulo/064327/> (2001-01-17):
# In Oaxaca, the 55.000 teachers from the Section 22 of the National
# Syndicate of Education Workers, refuse to apply daylight saving each
# year, so that the more than 10,000 schools work at normal hour the
# whole year.

# From Gwillim Law (2001-01-19):
# <http://www.reforma.com/negocios_y_dinero/articulo/064481/> ... says
# (translated):...
# January 17, 2000 - The Energy Secretary, Ernesto Martens, announced
# that Summer Time will be reduced from seven to five months, starting
# this year....
# <http://www.publico.com.mx/scripts/texto3.asp?action=pagina&pag=21&pos=p&secc=naci&date=01/17/2001>
# [translated], says "summer time will ... take effect on the first Sunday
# in May, and end on the last Sunday of September.

# From Arthur David Olson (2001-01-25):
# The 2001-01-24 traditional Washington Post contained the page one
# story "Timely Issue Divides Mexicans."...
# http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37383-2001Jan23.html
# ... Mexico City Mayor Lopez Obrador "...is threatening to keep
# Mexico City and its 20 million residents on a different time than
# the rest of the country..." In particular, Lopez Obrador would abolish
# observation of Daylight Saving Time.

# <a href="http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/decretohorver2001.html#decre">
# Official statute published by the Energy Department
# </a> (2001-02-01) shows Baja and Chihauhua as still using US DST rules,
# and Sonora with no DST.  This was reported by Jesper Norgaard (2001-02-03).

# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-03):
#
# <a href="http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/20010303/t000018766.html">
# James F. Smith writes in today's LA Times
# </a>
# * Sonora will continue to observe standard time.
# * Last week Mexico City's mayor Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador decreed that
#   the Federal District will not adopt DST.
# * 4 of 16 district leaders announced they'll ignore the decree.
# * The decree does not affect federal-controlled facilities including
#   the airport, banks, hospitals, and schools.
#
# For now we'll assume that the Federal District will bow to federal rules.

# From Jesper Norgaard (2001-04-01):
# I found some references to the Mexican application of daylight
# saving, which modifies what I had already sent you, stating earlier
# that a number of northern Mexican states would go on daylight
# saving. The modification reverts this to only cover Baja California
# (Norte), while all other states (except Sonora, who has no daylight
# saving all year) will follow the original decree of president
# Vicente Fox, starting daylight saving May 6, 2001 and ending
# September 30, 2001.
# References: "Diario de Monterrey" <www.diariodemonterrey.com/index.asp>
# Palabra <http://palabra.infosel.com/010331/primera/ppri3101.pdf> (2001-03-31)

# From Reuters (2001-09-04):
# Mexico's Supreme Court on Tuesday declared that daylight savings was
# unconstitutional in Mexico City, creating the possibility the
# capital will be in a different time zone from the rest of the nation
# next year....  The Supreme Court's ruling takes effect at 2:00
# a.m. (0800 GMT) on Sept. 30, when Mexico is scheduled to revert to
# standard time. "This is so residents of the Federal District are not
# subject to unexpected time changes," a statement from the court said.

# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2002-03-12):
# ... consulting my local grocery store(!) and my coworkers, they all insisted
# that a new decision had been made to reinstate US style DST in Mexico....
# http://www.conae.gob.mx/ahorro/horaver2001_m1_2002.html (2002-02-20)
# confirms this.  Sonora as usual is the only state where DST is not applied.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Mexico	1939	only	-	Feb	5	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mexico	1939	only	-	Jun	25	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mexico	1940	only	-	Dec	9	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mexico	1941	only	-	Apr	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mexico	1943	only	-	Dec	16	0:00	1:00	W # War
Rule	Mexico	1944	only	-	May	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mexico	1950	only	-	Feb	12	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mexico	1950	only	-	Jul	30	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mexico	1996	2000	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mexico	1996	2000	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Mexico	2001	only	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mexico	2001	only	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Mexico	2002	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Mexico	2002	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
# Quintana Roo
Zone America/Cancun	-5:47:04 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:12:56
			-6:00	-	CST	1981 Dec 23
			-5:00	Mexico	E%sT	1998 Aug  2  2:00
			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
# Campeche, Yucatan
Zone America/Merida	-5:58:28 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:01:32
			-6:00	-	CST	1981 Dec 23
			-5:00	-	EST	1982 Dec  2
			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
# Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas
Zone America/Monterrey	-6:41:16 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:18:44
			-6:00	-	CST	1988
			-6:00	US	C%sT	1989
			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
# Central Mexico
Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:23:24
			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
			-7:00	-	MST	1931 May  1 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1931 Oct
			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	2001 Sep 30 02:00
			-6:00	-	CST	2002 Feb 20
			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT
# Chihuahua
Zone America/Chihuahua	-7:04:20 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:55:40
			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
			-7:00	-	MST	1931 May  1 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1931 Oct
			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
			-6:00	-	CST	1996
			-6:00	Mexico	C%sT	1998
			-6:00	-	CST	1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00
			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT
# Sonora
Zone America/Hermosillo	-7:23:52 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:36:08
			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
			-7:00	-	MST	1931 May  1 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1931 Oct
			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
			-6:00	-	CST	1942 Apr 24
			-7:00	-	MST	1949 Jan 14
			-8:00	-	PST	1970
			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT	1999
			-7:00	-	MST
# Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Sinaloa
Zone America/Mazatlan	-7:05:40 -	LMT	1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
			-7:00	-	MST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1930 Nov 15
			-7:00	-	MST	1931 May  1 23:00
			-6:00	-	CST	1931 Oct
			-7:00	-	MST	1932 Apr  1
			-6:00	-	CST	1942 Apr 24
			-7:00	-	MST	1949 Jan 14
			-8:00	-	PST	1970
			-7:00	Mexico	M%sT
# Baja California
Zone America/Tijuana	-7:48:04 -	LMT	1922 Jan  1  0:11:56
			-7:00	-	MST	1924
			-8:00	-	PST	1927 Jun 10 23:00
			-7:00	-	MST	1930 Nov 15
			-8:00	-	PST	1931 Apr  1
			-8:00	1:00	PDT	1931 Sep 30
			-8:00	-	PST	1942 Apr 24
			-8:00	1:00	PWT	1945 Nov 12
			-8:00	-	PST	1948 Apr  5
			-8:00	1:00	PDT	1949 Jan 14
			-8:00	-	PST	1954
			-8:00	CA	P%sT	1961
			-8:00	-	PST	1976
			-8:00	US	P%sT	1996
			-8:00	Mexico	P%sT	2001
			-8:00	US	P%sT	2002 Feb 20
			-8:00	Mexico	P%sT
# From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
# Formerly there was an America/Ensenada zone, which differed from
# America/Tijuana only in that it did not observe DST from 1976
# through 1995.  This was as per Shanks.  However, Guy Harris reports
# that the 1987 OAG says "Only Ensenada, Mexicale, San Felipe and
# Tijuana observe DST," which contradicts Shanks but does imply that
# DST-observance was a town-by-town matter back then.  This concerns
# data after 1970 so most likely there should be at least one Zone
# other than America/Tijuana for Baja, but it's not clear yet what its
# name or contents should be.
#
# Revillagigedo Is
# no information

###############################################################################

# Anguilla
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Anguilla	-4:12:16 -	LMT	1912 Mar 2
			-4:00	-	AST

# Antigua and Barbuda
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Antigua	-4:07:12 -	LMT	1912 Mar 2
			-5:00	-	EST	1951
			-4:00	-	AST

# Bahamas
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Bahamas	1964	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	Bahamas	1964	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Bahamas	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Nassau	-5:09:24 -	LMT	1912 Mar 2
			-5:00	Bahamas	E%sT

# Barbados
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Barb	1977	only	-	Jun	12	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Barb	1977	1978	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
Rule	Barb	1978	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Barb	1979	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	S
Rule	Barb	1980	only	-	Sep	25	2:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Barbados	-3:58:28 -	LMT	1924		# Bridgetown
			-3:58:28 -	BMT	1932	  # Bridgetown Mean Time
			-4:00	Barb	A%sT

# Belize
# Whitman entirely disagrees with Shanks; go with Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Belize	1918	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0:30	HD
Rule	Belize	1919	1943	-	Feb	Sun>=9	0:00	0	S
Rule	Belize	1973	only	-	Dec	 5	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Belize	1974	only	-	Feb	 9	0:00	0	S
Rule	Belize	1982	only	-	Dec	18	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Belize	1983	only	-	Feb	12	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Belize	-5:52:48 -	LMT	1912 Apr
			-6:00	Belize	C%sT

# Bermuda
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Bermuda	-4:19:04 -	LMT	1930 Jan  1 2:00    # Hamilton
			-4:00	-	AST	1974 Apr 28 2:00
			-4:00	Bahamas	A%sT

# Cayman Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Cayman	-5:25:32 -	LMT	1890		# Georgetown
			-5:07:12 -	KMT	1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
			-5:00	-	EST

# Costa Rica
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	CR	1979	1980	-	Feb	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	CR	1979	1980	-	Jun	Sun>=1	0:00	0	S
Rule	CR	1991	1992	-	Jan	Sat>=15	0:00	1:00	D
# IATA SSIM (1991-09) says the following was at 1:00; go with Shanks.
Rule	CR	1991	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	CR	1992	only	-	Mar	15	0:00	0	S
# There are too many San Joses elsewhere, so we'll use `Costa Rica'.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Costa_Rica	-5:36:20 -	LMT	1890		# San Jose
			-5:36:20 -	SJMT	1921 Jan 15 # San Jose Mean Time
			-6:00	CR	C%sT
# Coco
# no information; probably like America/Costa_Rica

# Cuba

# From Arthur David Olson (1999-03-29):
# The 1999-03-28 exhibition baseball game held in Havana, Cuba, between
# the Cuban National Team and the Baltimore Orioles was carried live on
# the Orioles Radio Network, including affiliate WTOP in Washington, DC.
# During the game, play-by-play announcer Jim Hunter noted that
# "We'll be losing two hours of sleep...Cuba switched to Daylight Saving
# Time today."  (The "two hour" remark referred to losing one hour of
# sleep on 1999-03-28--when the announcers were in Cuba as it switched
# to DST--and one more hour on 1999-04-04--when the announcers will have
# returned to Baltimore, which switches on that date.)

# From Evert van der Veer via Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-28):
# Cuba is not going back to standard time this year.
# From Paul Eggert (2004-10-28):
# http://www.granma.cu/ingles/2004/septiembre/juev30/41medid-i.html
# says that it's due to a problem at the Antonio Guiteras
# thermoelectric plant, and says "This October there will be no return
# to normal hours (after daylight saving time)".
# For now, let's assume that it's a one-year temporary measure.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Cuba	1928	only	-	Jun	10	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1928	only	-	Oct	10	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1940	1942	-	Jun	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1940	1942	-	Sep	Sun>=1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1945	1946	-	Jun	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1945	1946	-	Sep	Sun>=1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1965	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1965	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1966	only	-	May	29	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1966	only	-	Oct	2	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1967	only	-	Apr	8	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1967	1968	-	Sep	Sun>=8	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1968	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1969	1977	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1969	1971	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1972	1974	-	Oct	8	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1975	1977	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1978	only	-	May	7	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1978	1990	-	Oct	Sun>=8	0:00	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1979	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1981	1985	-	May	Sun>=5	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1990	1997	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1991	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=8	0:00s	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1996	only	-	Oct	 6	0:00s	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1997	only	-	Oct	12	0:00s	0	S
Rule	Cuba	1998	1999	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	1998	2003	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00s	0	S
Rule	Cuba	2000	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Cuba	2005	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00s	0	S

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Havana	-5:29:28 -	LMT	1890
			-5:29:36 -	HMT	1925 Jul 19 12:00 # Havana MT
			-5:00	Cuba	C%sT

# Dominica
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Dominica	-4:05:36 -	LMT	1911 Jul 1 0:01		# Roseau
			-4:00	-	AST

# Dominican Republic

# From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-30):
# Enrique Morales reported to me that the Dominican Republic has changed the
# time zone to Eastern Standard Time as of Sunday 29 at 2 am....
# http://www.listin.com.do/antes/261000/republica/princi.html

# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
# That URL (2000-10-26, in Spanish) says they planned to use US-style DST.

# From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
# Dominican Republic changed its mind and presidential decree on Tuesday,
# November 28, 2000, with a new decree.  On Sunday, December 3 at 1:00 AM the
# Dominican Republic will be reverting to 8 hours from the International Date
# Line, and will not be using DST in the foreseeable future.  The reason they
# decided to use DST was to be in synch with Puerto Rico, who was also going
# to implement DST.  When Puerto Rico didn't implement DST, the president
# decided to revert.


# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	DR	1966	only	-	Oct	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	DR	1967	only	-	Feb	28	0:00	0	S
Rule	DR	1969	1973	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	HD
Rule	DR	1970	only	-	Feb	21	0:00	0	S
Rule	DR	1971	only	-	Jan	20	0:00	0	S
Rule	DR	1972	1974	-	Jan	21	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Santo_Domingo -4:39:36 -	LMT	1890
			-4:40	-	SDMT	1933 Apr  1 12:00 # S. Dom. MT
			-5:00	DR	E%sT	1974 Oct 27
			-4:00	-	AST	2000 Oct 29 02:00
			-5:00	US	E%sT	2000 Dec  3 01:00
			-4:00	-	AST

# El Salvador
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Salv	1987	1988	-	May	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Salv	1987	1988	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	S
# There are too many San Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/El_Salvador
# instead of America/San_Salvador.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/El_Salvador -5:56:48 -	LMT	1921		# San Salvador
			-6:00	Salv	C%sT

# Grenada
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Grenada	-4:07:00 -	LMT	1911 Jul	# St George's
			-4:00	-	AST

# Guadeloupe
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Guadeloupe	-4:06:08 -	LMT	1911 Jun 8	# Pointe a Pitre
			-4:00	-	AST

# Guatemala
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Guat	1973	only	-	Nov	25	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Guat	1974	only	-	Feb	24	0:00	0	S
Rule	Guat	1983	only	-	May	21	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Guat	1983	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
Rule	Guat	1991	only	-	Mar	23	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Guat	1991	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Guatemala	-6:02:04 -	LMT	1918 Oct 5
			-6:00	Guat	C%sT

# Haiti
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-15):
# Risto O. Nykanen wrote me that Haiti is now on DST.
# I searched for confirmation, and I found a
# <a href="http://www.haitianconsulate.org/time.doc"> press release
# on the Web page of the Haitian Consulate in Chicago (2005-03-31),
# </a>.  Translated from French, it says:
#
#  "The Prime Minister's Communication Office notifies the public in general
#   and the press in particular that, following a decision of the Interior
#   Ministry and the Territorial Collectivities [I suppose that means the
#   provinces], Haiti will move to Eastern Daylight Time in the night from next
#   Saturday the 2nd to Sunday the 3rd.
#
#  "Consequently, the Prime Minister's Communication Office wishes to inform
#   the population that the country's clocks will be set forward one hour
#   starting at midnight.  This provision will hold until the last Saturday in
#   October 2005.
#
#  "Port-au-Prince, March 31, 2005"

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Haiti	1983	only	-	May	8	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Haiti	1984	1987	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Haiti	1983	1987	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	S
# Shanks says AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1997) says 1:00s.  Go with IATA.
Rule	Haiti	1988	1997	-	Apr	Sun>=1	1:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Haiti	1988	1997	-	Oct	lastSun	1:00s	0	S
Rule	Haiti	2005	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Haiti	2005	only	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 -	LMT	1890
			-4:49	-	PPMT	1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
			-5:00	Haiti	E%sT

# Honduras
# Shanks says 1921 Jan 1; go with Whitman's more precise Apr 1.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 -	LMT	1921 Apr
			-6:00	Salv	C%sT
#
# Great Swan I ceded by US to Honduras in 1972

# Jamaica

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# Follows US rules.

# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
# JAMAICA             5 H  BEHIND UTC

# From Shanks:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Jamaica	-5:07:12 -	LMT	1890		# Kingston
			-5:07:12 -	KMT	1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
			-5:00	-	EST	1974 Apr 28 2:00
			-5:00	US	E%sT	1984
			-5:00	-	EST

# Martinique
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Martinique	-4:04:20 -      LMT	1890		# Fort-de-France
			-4:04:20 -	FFMT	1911 May     # Fort-de-France MT
			-4:00	-	AST	1980 Apr  6
			-4:00	1:00	ADT	1980 Sep 28
			-4:00	-	AST

# Montserrat
# From Paul Eggert (1997-08-31):
# Recent volcanic eruptions have forced evacuation of Plymouth, the capital.
# Luckily, Olveston, the current de facto capital, has the same longitude.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Montserrat	-4:08:52 -	LMT	1911 Jul 1 0:01   # Olveston
			-4:00	-	AST

# Nicaragua
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (1998-12-29):
# Nicaragua seems to be back at -6:00 but I have not been able to find when
# they changed from -5:00.
#
# From Steffen Thorsen (2005-04-12):
# I've got reports from 8 different people that Nicaragua just started
# DST on Sunday 2005-04-10, in order to save energy because of
# expensive petroleum.  The exact end date for DST is not yet
# announced, only "September" but some sites also say "mid-September".
# Some background information is available on the President's official site:
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/Presidencia/Files_index/Secretaria/Notas%20de%20Prensa/Presidente/2005/ABRIL/Gobierno-de-nicaragua-adelanta-hora-oficial-06abril.htm
# The Decree, no 23-2005 is available here:
# http://www.presidencia.gob.ni/buscador_gaceta/BD/DECRETOS/2005/Decreto%2023-2005%20Se%20adelanta%20en%20una%20hora%20en%20todo%20el%20territorio%20nacional%20apartir%20de%20las%2024horas%20del%2009%20de%20Abril.pdf
#
# From Paul Eggert (2005-05-01):
# The decree doesn't say anything about daylight saving, but for now let's
# assume that it is daylight saving and that they'll switch back on the
# 3rd Sunday in September.
#
# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-21):
# The Associated Press story on the time change, which can be found at
# http://www.lapalmainteractivo.com/guias/content/gen/ap/America_Latina/AMC_GEN_NICARAGUA_HORA.html
# and elsewhere, says (fifth paragraph, translated from Spanish):  "The last
# time that a change of clocks was applied to save energy was in the year 2000
# during the Arnoldo Aleman administration."...
# The northamerica file says that Nicaragua has been on UTC-6 continuously
# since December 1998.  I wasn't able to find any details of Nicaraguan time
# changes in 2000.  Perhaps a note could be added to the northamerica file, to
# the effect that we have indirect evidence that DST was observed in 2000.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Nic	1979	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Nic	1979	1980	-	Jun	Mon>=23	0:00	0	S
Rule	Nic	1992	only	-	Jan	1	4:00	1:00	D
Rule	Nic	1992	only	-	Sep	24	0:00	0	S
Rule	Nic	2005	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Nic	2005	only	-	Sep	18	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Managua	-5:45:08 -	LMT	1890
			-5:45:12 -	MMT	1934 Jun 23 # Managua Mean Time?
			-6:00	-	CST	1973 May
			-5:00	-	EST	1975 Feb 16
			-6:00	Nic	C%sT	1993 Jan 1 4:00
			-5:00	-	EST	1998 Dec
			-6:00	Nic	C%sT

# Panama
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	America/Panama	-5:18:08 -	LMT	1890
			-5:19:36 -	CMT	1908 Apr 22   # Colon Mean Time
			-5:00	-	EST

# Puerto Rico
# There are too many San Juans elsewhere, so we'll use `Puerto_Rico'.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Puerto_Rico -4:24:25 -	LMT	1899 Mar 28 12:00    # San Juan
			-4:00	-	AST	1942 May  3
			-4:00	1:00	AWT	1945 Sep 30  2:00
			-4:00	-	AST

# St Kitts-Nevis
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/St_Kitts	-4:10:52 -	LMT	1912 Mar 2	# Basseterre
			-4:00	-	AST

# St Lucia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/St_Lucia	-4:04:00 -	LMT	1890		# Castries
			-4:04:00 -	CMT	1912	    # Castries Mean Time
			-4:00	-	AST

# St Pierre and Miquelon
# There are too many St Pierres elsewhere, so we'll use `Miquelon'.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Miquelon	-3:44:40 -	LMT	1911 May 15	# St Pierre
			-4:00	-	AST	1980 May
			-3:00	-	PMST	1987 # Pierre & Miquelon Time
			-3:00	Canada	PM%sT

# St Vincent and the Grenadines
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/St_Vincent	-4:04:56 -	LMT	1890		# Kingstown
			-4:04:56 -	KMT	1912	   # Kingstown Mean Time
			-4:00	-	AST

# Turks and Caicos
# From Paul Eggert (1998-08-06):
# Shanks says they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1998)
# says they switch at midnight.  Go with IATA SSIM.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	TC	1979	1986	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	TC	1979	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	S
Rule	TC	1987	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Grand_Turk	-4:44:32 -	LMT	1890
			-5:07:12 -	KMT	1912 Feb    # Kingston Mean Time
			-5:00	TC	E%sT

# British Virgin Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/Tortola	-4:18:28 -	LMT	1911 Jul    # Road Town
			-4:00	-	AST

# Virgin Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone America/St_Thomas	-4:19:44 -	LMT	1911 Jul    # Charlotte Amalie
			-4:00	-	AST