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.\" Copyright (c) 1987, 1990, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	From: @(#)install.1	8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd January 18, 2013
.Dt INSTALL 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm install
.Nd install binaries
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl bCcpSsUv
.Op Fl B Ar suffix
.Op Fl D Ar destdir
.Op Fl f Ar flags
.Op Fl g Ar group
.Op Fl h Ar hash
.Op Fl l Ar linkflags
.Op Fl M Ar metalog
.Op Fl m Ar mode
.Op Fl N Ar dbdir
.Op Fl o Ar owner
.Op Fl T Ar tags
.Ar file1 file2
.Nm
.Op Fl bCcpSsUv
.Op Fl B Ar suffix
.Op Fl D Ar destdir
.Op Fl f Ar flags
.Op Fl g Ar group
.Op Fl h Ar hash
.Op Fl l Ar linkflags
.Op Fl M Ar metalog
.Op Fl m Ar mode
.Op Fl N Ar dbdir
.Op Fl o Ar owner
.Op Fl T Ar tags
.Ar file1 ... fileN directory
.Nm
.Fl d
.Op Fl Uv
.Op Fl D Ar destdir
.Op Fl g Ar group
.Op Fl h Ar hash
.Op Fl M Ar metalog
.Op Fl m Ar mode
.Op Fl N Ar dbdir
.Op Fl o Ar owner
.Op Fl T Ar tags
.Ar directory ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The file(s) are copied
(or linked if the
.Fl l
option is specified) to the target file or directory.
If the destination is a directory, then the
.Ar file
is copied into
.Ar directory
with its original filename.
If the target file already exists, it is
either renamed to
.Ar file Ns Pa .old
if the
.Fl b
option is given
or overwritten
if permissions allow.
An alternate backup suffix may be specified via the
.Fl B
option's argument.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl b
Back up any existing files before overwriting them by renaming
them to
.Ar file Ns Pa .old .
See
.Fl B
for specifying a different backup suffix.
.It Fl B Ar suffix
Use
.Ar suffix
as the backup suffix if
.Fl b
is given.
.It Fl C
Copy the file.
If the target file already exists and the files are the same,
then do not change the modification time of the target.
If the target's file flags and mode need not to be changed,
the target's inode change time is also unchanged.
.It Fl c
Copy the file.
This is actually the default.
The
.Fl c
option is only included for backwards compatibility.
.It Fl D Ar destdir
Specify the
.Ev DESTDIR
(top of the file hierarchy) that the items are installed in to.
If
.Fl M Ar metalog
is in use, a leading string of
.Dq Ar destdir
will be removed from the file names logged to the
.Ar metalog .
This option does not affect where the actual files are installed.
.It Fl d
Create directories.
Missing parent directories are created as required.
.It Fl f
Specify the target's file flags; see
.Xr chflags 1
for a list of possible flags and their meanings.
.It Fl g
Specify a group.
A numeric GID is allowed.
.It Fl h Ar hash
When copying, calculate the digest of the files with
.Ar hash
to store in the
.Fl M Ar metalog .
When
.Fl d
is given no hash is emitted.
Supported digests:
.Bl -tag -width rmd160 -offset indent
.It Sy none
No hash.
This is the default.
.It Sy md5
The MD5 cryptographic message digest.
.It Sy rmd160
The RMD-160 cryptographic message digest.
.It Sy sha1
The SHA-1 cryptographic message digest.
.It Sy sha256
The 256-bits
.Tn SHA-2
cryptographic message digest of the file.
.It Sy sha512
The 512-bits
.Tn SHA-2
cryptographic message digest of the file.
.El
.It Fl l Ar linkflags
Instead of copying the file make a link to the source.
The type of the link is determined by the
.Ar linkflags
argument.
Valid
.Ar linkflags
are:
.Ar a
(absolute),
.Ar r
(relative),
.Ar h
(hard),
.Ar s
(symbolic),
.Ar m
(mixed).
Absolute and relative have effect only for symbolic links.
Mixed links
are hard links for files on the same filesystem, symbolic otherwise.
.It Fl M Ar metalog
Write the metadata associated with each item installed to
.Ar metalog
in an
.Xr mtree 8
.Dq full path
specification line.
The metadata includes: the file name and file type, and depending upon
other options, the owner, group, file flags, modification time, and tags.
.It Fl m
Specify an alternate mode.
The default mode is set to rwxr-xr-x (0755).
The specified mode may be either an octal or symbolic value; see
.Xr chmod 1
for a description of possible mode values.
.It Fl N
Use the user database text file
.Pa master.passwd
and group database text file
.Pa group
from
.Ar dbdir ,
rather than using the results from the system's
.Xr getpwnam 3
and
.Xr getgrnam 3
(and related) library calls.
.It Fl o
Specify an owner.
A numeric UID is allowed.
.It Fl p
Preserve the access and modification times.
Copy the file, as if the
.Fl C
(compare and copy) option is specified,
except if the target file does not already exist or is different,
then preserve the access and modification times of the source file.
.It Fl S
Safe copy.
Normally,
.Nm
unlinks an existing target before installing the new file.
With the
.Fl S
flag a temporary file is used and then renamed to be
the target.
The reason this is safer is that if the copy or
rename fails, the existing target is left untouched.
.It Fl s
.Nm
exec's the command
.Xr strip 1
to strip binaries so that
.Nm
can be portable over a large
number of systems and binary types.
See below for how
.Nm
can be instructed to use another program to strip binaries.
.It Fl T Ar tags
Specify the
.Xr mtree 8
tags to write out for the file when using
.Fl M Ar metalog .
.It Fl U
Indicate that install is running unprivileged, and that it should not
try to change the owner, the group, or the file flags of the destination.
The information that would have been updated can be stored in a log
file with
.Fl M Ar metalog .
.It Fl v
Cause
.Nm
to be verbose,
showing files as they are installed or backed up.
.El
.Pp
By default,
.Nm
preserves all file flags, with the exception of the
.Dq nodump
flag.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility attempts to prevent moving a file onto itself.
.Pp
Installing
.Pa /dev/null
creates an empty file.
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
The
.Nm
utility checks for the presence of the
.Ev STRIPBIN
environment variable and if present,
uses the assigned value as the program to run if and when the
.Fl s
option has been specified.
.Pp
If the
.Ev DONTSTRIP
environment variable is present,
.Nm
will ignore any specification of the
.Fl s
option.
This is mainly for use in debugging the
.Fx
Ports Collection.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width ".Pa INS@XXXX" -compact
.It Pa INS@XXXX
If either
.Fl S
option is specified, or the
.Fl C
or
.Fl p
option is used in conjunction with the
.Fl s
option, temporary files named
.Pa INS@XXXX ,
where
.Pa XXXX
is decided by
.Xr mkstemp 3 ,
are created in the target directory.
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
.Ex -std
.Sh COMPATIBILITY
Historically
.Nm
moved files by default.
The default was changed to copy in
.Fx 4.4 .
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr chflags 1 ,
.Xr chgrp 1 ,
.Xr chmod 1 ,
.Xr cp 1 ,
.Xr mv 1 ,
.Xr strip 1 ,
.Xr mmap 2 ,
.Xr getgrnam 3 ,
.Xr getpwnam 3 ,
.Xr chown 8
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
.Sh BUGS
The meaning of the
.Fl M
option has changed as of
.Fx 9.2
and it now takes an argument.
Command lines that used the old
.Fl M
will get an error or in rare cases will append logs to the first of
multiple source files rather than installing it.
.Pp
Temporary files may be left in the target directory if
.Nm
exits abnormally.
.Pp
File flags cannot be set by
.Xr fchflags 2
over a NFS file system.
Other file systems do not have a concept of flags.
The
.Nm
utility will only warn when flags could not be set on a file system
that does not support them.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility with
.Fl v
falsely says a file is copied when
.Fl C
snaps hard links.