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.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"     From: @(#)mtree.8	8.2 (Berkeley) 12/11/93
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd June 16, 2007
.Dt MTREE 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm mtree
.Nd map a directory hierarchy
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl LPUcdeinqruxw
.Bk -words
.Op Fl f Ar spec
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl K Ar keywords
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl k Ar keywords
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl p Ar path
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl s Ar seed
.Ek
.Bk -words
.Op Fl X Ar exclude-list
.Ek
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current directory against a
specification read from the standard input.
Messages are written to the standard output for any files whose
characteristics do not match the specifications, or which are
missing from either the file hierarchy or the specification.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width flag
.It Fl L
Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.
.It Fl P
Do not follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider
the symbolic link itself in any comparisons.
This is the default.
.It Fl U
Modify the owner, group, permissions, and modification time of existing
files to match the specification and create any missing directories or
symbolic links.
User, group and permissions must all be specified for missing directories
to be created.
Corrected mismatches are not considered errors.
.It Fl c
Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard output.
.It Fl d
Ignore everything except directory type files.
.It Fl e
Do not complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not in the
specification.
.It Fl i
Indent the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is descended when
creating a specification with the
.Fl c
option.
This does not affect either the /set statements or the comment before each
directory.
It does however affect the comment before the close of each directory.
.It Fl n
Do not emit pathname comments when creating a specification.
Normally
a comment is emitted before each directory and before the close of that
directory when using the
.Fl c
option.
.It Fl q
Quiet mode.
Do not complain when a
.Dq missing
directory cannot be created because it already exists.
This occurs when the directory is a symbolic link.
.It Fl r
Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in the
specification.
.It Fl u
Same as
.Fl U
except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy did not match
the specification.
.It Fl w
Make some errors non-fatal warnings.
.It Fl x
Do not descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.
.It Fl f Ar file
Read the specification from
.Ar file ,
instead of from the standard input.
.Pp
If this option is specified twice, the two specifications are compared
to each other rather than to the file hierarchy.
The specifications will be sorted like output generated using
.Fl c .
The output format in this case is somewhat remniscent of
.Xr comm 1 ,
having "in first spec only", "in second spec only", and "different"
columns, prefixed by zero, one and two TAB characters respectively.
Each entry in the "different" column occupies two lines, one from each specification.
.It Fl K Ar keywords
Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated)
.Ar keywords
to the current set of keywords.
.It Fl k Ar keywords
Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma separated)
.Ar keywords
instead of the current set of keywords.
.It Fl p Ar path
Use the file hierarchy rooted in
.Ar path ,
instead of the current directory.
.It Fl s Ar seed
Display a single checksum to the standard error output that represents all
of the files for which the keyword
.Cm cksum
was specified.
The checksum is seeded with the specified value.
.It Fl X Ar exclude-list
The specified file contains
.Xr fnmatch 3
patterns matching files to be excluded from
the specification, one to a line.
If the pattern contains a
.Ql \&/
character, it will be matched against entire pathnames (relative to
the starting directory); otherwise,
it will be matched against basenames only.
No comments are allowed in
the
.Ar exclude-list
file.
.El
.Pp
Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e., strings
that specify values relating to files.
No keywords have default values, and if a keyword has no value set, no
checks based on it are performed.
.Pp
Currently supported keywords are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width Cm
.It Cm cksum
The checksum of the file using the default algorithm specified by
the
.Xr cksum 1
utility.
.It Cm flags
The file flags as a symbolic name.
See
.Xr chflags 1
for information on these names.
If no flags are to be set the string
.Dq none
may be used to override the current default.
.It Cm ignore
Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.
.It Cm gid
The file group as a numeric value.
.It Cm gname
The file group as a symbolic name.
.It Cm md5digest
The MD5 message digest of the file.
.It Cm sha1digest
The
.Tn FIPS
160-1
.Pq Dq Tn SHA-1
message digest of the file.
.It Cm sha256digest
The
.Tn FIPS
180-2
.Pq Dq Tn SHA-256
message digest of the file.
.It Cm ripemd160digest
The
.Tn RIPEMD160
message digest of the file.
.It Cm mode
The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or symbolic
value.
.It Cm nlink
The number of hard links the file is expected to have.
.It Cm nochange
Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise ignore all attributes.
.It Cm optional
The file is optional; do not complain about the file if it is
not in the file hierarchy.
.It Cm uid
The file owner as a numeric value.
.It Cm uname
The file owner as a symbolic name.
.It Cm size
The size, in bytes, of the file.
.It Cm link
The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.
.It Cm time
The last modification time of the file, in seconds and nanoseconds.
The value should include a period character and exactly nine digits
after the period.
.It Cm type
The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width Cm -compact
.It Cm block
block special device
.It Cm char
character special device
.It Cm dir
directory
.It Cm fifo
fifo
.It Cm file
regular file
.It Cm link
symbolic link
.It Cm socket
socket
.El
.El
.Pp
The default set of keywords are
.Cm flags ,
.Cm gid ,
.Cm link ,
.Cm mode ,
.Cm nlink ,
.Cm size ,
.Cm time ,
and
.Cm uid .
.Pp
There are four types of lines in a specification.
.Pp
The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of
the string ``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of keyword/value
pairs, separated by whitespace.
Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign
(``=''), followed by a value, without whitespace characters.
Once a keyword has been set, its value remains unchanged until either
reset or unset.
.Pp
The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string
``/unset'', followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords,
separated by whitespace.
.Pp
The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file
name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace
separated keyword/value pairs.
The file name may be preceded by whitespace characters.
The file name may contain any of the standard file name matching
characters (``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that
they match.
.Pp
Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an
equals sign (``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without
whitespace characters.
These values override, without changing, the global value of the
corresponding keyword.
.Pp
All paths are relative.
Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be searched
for in that directory hierarchy.
Which brings us to the last type of line in a specification: a line
containing only the string
.Dq Pa ..\&
causes the current directory
path to ascend one level.
.Pp
Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash
mark (``#'') are ignored.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error occurred,
and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.
A status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the
.Fl U
option is used.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /etc/mtree -compact
.It Pa /etc/mtree
system specification directory
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
.Ex -std
.Sh EXAMPLES
To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recommended
that
.Nm
.Fl K
.Cm sha256digest
be run on the file systems, and a copy of the results stored on a different
machine, or, at least, in encrypted form.
The output file itself should be digested using the
.Xr sha256 1
utility.
Then, periodically,
.Nm
and
.Xr sha256 1
should be run against the on-line specifications.
While it is possible for the bad guys to change the on-line specifications
to conform to their modified binaries, it is believed to be
impractical for them to create a modified specification which has
the same SHA-256 digest as the original.
.Pp
The
.Fl d
and
.Fl u
options can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies
for distributions and other such things; the files in
.Pa /etc/mtree
were used to create almost all directories in this
.Fx
distribution.
.Pp
To create an
.Pa /etc/mtree
style BSD.*.dist file, use
.Nm
.Fl c
.Fl d
.Fl i
.Fl n
.Fl k
.Cm uname,gname,mode,nochange.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr chflags 1 ,
.Xr chgrp 1 ,
.Xr chmod 1 ,
.Xr cksum 1 ,
.Xr md5 1 ,
.Xr stat 2 ,
.Xr fts 3 ,
.Xr md5 3 ,
.Xr chown 8
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
utility appeared in
.Bx 4.3 Reno .
The
.Tn MD5
digest capability was added in
.Fx 2.1 ,
in response to the widespread use of programs which can spoof
.Xr cksum 1 .
The
.Tn SHA-1
and
.Tn RIPEMD160
digests were added in
.Fx 4.0 ,
as new attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in
.Tn MD5 .
The
.Tn SHA-256
digest was added in
.Fx 6.0 .
Support for file flags was added in
.Fx 4.0 ,
and mostly comes from
.Nx .