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authorPhilippe Charnier <charnier@FreeBSD.org>2002-07-06 19:35:14 +0000
committerPhilippe Charnier <charnier@FreeBSD.org>2002-07-06 19:35:14 +0000
commit629e80effb830c03e8e3d994c8f0da9a586bdaed (patch)
tree99ea69cc63d1c002be52a140f51ebc2b2c7744d7
parent960368f7ffa06661f3de934079153cc071700d89 (diff)
downloadsrc-629e80effb830c03e8e3d994c8f0da9a586bdaed.tar.gz
src-629e80effb830c03e8e3d994c8f0da9a586bdaed.zip
The .Nm utility.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=99503
-rw-r--r--sbin/reboot/reboot.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/restore/restore.833
-rw-r--r--sbin/route/route.812
-rw-r--r--sbin/routed/routed.812
-rw-r--r--sbin/routed/rtquery/rtquery.815
-rw-r--r--sbin/savecore/savecore.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/shutdown/shutdown.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/slattach/slattach.816
-rw-r--r--sbin/swapon/swapon.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/sysctl/sysctl.814
-rw-r--r--sbin/tunefs/tunefs.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/umount/umount.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/vinum/vinum.838
13 files changed, 103 insertions, 67 deletions
diff --git a/sbin/reboot/reboot.8 b/sbin/reboot/reboot.8
index 4f0000200d23..2778814219ea 100644
--- a/sbin/reboot/reboot.8
+++ b/sbin/reboot/reboot.8
@@ -142,5 +142,5 @@ specific programs.
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.At v6 .
diff --git a/sbin/restore/restore.8 b/sbin/restore/restore.8
index 21db2681e12b..d551f28a2818 100644
--- a/sbin/restore/restore.8
+++ b/sbin/restore/restore.8
@@ -85,15 +85,16 @@ is not documented here.)
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command performs the inverse function of
+utility performs the inverse function of
.Xr dump 8 .
A full backup of a filesystem may be restored and
subsequent incremental backups layered on top of it.
Single files and
directory subtrees may be restored from full or partial
backups.
-.Nm Restore
-works across a network;
+The
+.Nm
+utility works across a network;
to do this see the
.Fl f
flag described below.
@@ -144,8 +145,9 @@ those files that are not needed.
.It Ic extract
All the files that are on the extraction list are extracted
from the dump.
-.Nm Restore
-will ask which volume the user wishes to mount.
+The
+.Nm
+utility will ask which volume the user wishes to mount.
The fastest way to extract a few files is to
start with the last volume, and work towards the first volume.
.It Ic help
@@ -159,7 +161,7 @@ flag is set the inode number of each entry is also listed.
.It Ic pwd
Print the full pathname of the current working directory.
.It Ic quit
-Restore immediately exits,
+Exit immediately,
even if the extraction list is not empty.
.It Ic setmodes
All the directories that have been added to the extraction list
@@ -177,13 +179,12 @@ It also causes
.Nm
to print out information about each file as it is extracted.
.It Ic what
-Displays dump header information, which includes: date,
+Display dump header information, which includes: date,
level, label, and the filesystem and host dump was made
from.
.El
.It Fl R
-.Nm Restore
-requests a particular tape of a multi volume set on which to restart
+Request a particular tape of a multi volume set on which to restart
a full restore
(see the
.Fl r
@@ -224,7 +225,9 @@ restore passes.
This file should be removed when the last incremental has been
restored.
.Pp
-.Nm Restore ,
+The
+.Nm
+utility ,
in conjunction with
.Xr newfs 8
and
@@ -353,8 +356,9 @@ Do not ask the user whether to abort the restore in the event of an error.
Always try to skip over the bad block(s) and continue.
.El
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
+The
.Nm
-complains if it gets a read error.
+utility complains if it gets a read error.
If
.Fl y
has been specified, or the user responds
@@ -439,8 +443,9 @@ information passed between incremental restores.
.Xr newfs 8 ,
.Xr rmt 8
.Sh BUGS
-.Nm Restore
-can get confused when doing incremental restores from
+The
+.Nm
+utility can get confused when doing incremental restores from
dumps that were made on active filesystems.
.Pp
A level zero dump must be done after a full restore.
@@ -479,5 +484,5 @@ operations shouldn't conflict with each other.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/route/route.8 b/sbin/route/route.8
index 069c8d9675a5..95026ea884c1 100644
--- a/sbin/route/route.8
+++ b/sbin/route/route.8
@@ -47,8 +47,9 @@
.Ar args
.Oc
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Route
-is a utility used to manually manipulate the network
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to manually manipulate the network
routing tables. It normally is not needed, as a
system routing table management daemon such as
.Xr routed 8 ,
@@ -337,8 +338,9 @@ If this lookup fails,
.Xr getnetbyname 3
is then used to interpret the name as that of a network.
.Pp
-.Nm Route
-uses a routing socket and the new message types
+The
+.Nm
+utility uses a routing socket and the new message types
.Dv RTM_ADD , RTM_DELETE , RTM_GET ,
and
.Dv RTM_CHANGE .
@@ -394,7 +396,7 @@ The next-hop gateway should be reachable through a different route.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
.Sh BUGS
The first paragraph may have slightly exaggerated
diff --git a/sbin/routed/routed.8 b/sbin/routed/routed.8
index 496d4f55ad57..dc51e9ab21dc 100644
--- a/sbin/routed/routed.8
+++ b/sbin/routed/routed.8
@@ -49,8 +49,9 @@
.Oc
.Op Fl P Ar parms
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Routed
-is a daemon invoked at boot time to manage the network
+The
+.Nm
+utility is a daemon invoked at boot time to manage the network
routing tables.
It uses Routing Information Protocol, RIPv1 (RFC\ 1058),
RIPv2 (RFC\ 1723),
@@ -364,8 +365,9 @@ It is better to use
instead of
appending the name of the trace file to the command.
.Pp
-.Nm Routed
-also supports the notion of
+The
+.Nm
+utility also supports the notion of
"distant"
.Em passive
or
@@ -679,5 +681,5 @@ for example, when the output side fails.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/routed/rtquery/rtquery.8 b/sbin/routed/rtquery/rtquery.8
index ffdba8b28617..44478fa3a10b 100644
--- a/sbin/routed/rtquery/rtquery.8
+++ b/sbin/routed/rtquery/rtquery.8
@@ -18,8 +18,9 @@
.Op Fl t Ar op
.Ar host ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Rtquery
-is used to query a RIP network routing daemon,
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to query a RIP network routing daemon,
.Xr routed 8
or
.Xr gated 8 ,
@@ -32,8 +33,9 @@ The routing information in any routing
.Em response
packets returned is displayed numerically and symbolically.
.Pp
-.Nm Rtquery
-by default uses the
+The
+.Nm
+utility by default uses the
.Em request
command.
When the
@@ -64,8 +66,9 @@ coming from
.Nm
and so answers completely.
.Pp
-.Nm Rtquery
-is also used to turn tracing on or off in
+The
+.Nm
+utility is also used to turn tracing on or off in
.Xr routed 8 .
.Pp
The following options are available:
diff --git a/sbin/savecore/savecore.8 b/sbin/savecore/savecore.8
index 6f631323500f..f034c790e52e 100644
--- a/sbin/savecore/savecore.8
+++ b/sbin/savecore/savecore.8
@@ -134,5 +134,5 @@ The minfree code does not consider the effect of compression or sparse files.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.1 .
diff --git a/sbin/shutdown/shutdown.8 b/sbin/shutdown/shutdown.8
index 41c503ff15e8..cf15bd560153 100644
--- a/sbin/shutdown/shutdown.8
+++ b/sbin/shutdown/shutdown.8
@@ -52,8 +52,9 @@
.Ar time
.Op Ar warning-message ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Shutdown
-provides an automated shutdown procedure for super-users
+The
+.Nm
+utility provides an automated shutdown procedure for super-users
to nicely notify users when the system is shutting down,
saving them from system administrators, hackers, and gurus, who
would otherwise not bother with such niceties.
@@ -185,5 +186,5 @@ a colon (``:'') for backward compatibility.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.0 .
diff --git a/sbin/slattach/slattach.8 b/sbin/slattach/slattach.8
index 83eb98100111..d0ba8b54a950 100644
--- a/sbin/slattach/slattach.8
+++ b/sbin/slattach/slattach.8
@@ -58,8 +58,9 @@
.Op Fl S Ar unit
.Ar ttyname
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Slattach
-is used to assign a tty line to a network interface,
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to assign a tty line to a network interface,
and to define the network source and destination addresses.
.Pp
The following options are available:
@@ -131,8 +132,9 @@ When
is disconnected,
.Ql Nm "sh -c" Ar unit-command old \-1
is run.
-.Nm Slattach
-will abort if the unit number
+The
+.Nm
+utility will abort if the unit number
changes and
.Ql Fl u Ar \%unit-command
was not specified.
@@ -238,7 +240,9 @@ is a daemon).
Messages indicating the specified interface does not exit, the
requested address is unknown, the user is not privileged and tried to
alter an interface's configuration are logged there.
-.Nm Slattach
+The
+.Nm
+utility
also logs failure to set the controlling terminal or failure to install
signal handlers. Upon connection and redial the ttyname and baud rate
are logged and on shutdown the ttyname is logged.
@@ -266,5 +270,5 @@ process and can be examined by scripts in order to send a signal to
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.3 .
diff --git a/sbin/swapon/swapon.8 b/sbin/swapon/swapon.8
index ac9e018d90a8..026742751157 100644
--- a/sbin/swapon/swapon.8
+++ b/sbin/swapon/swapon.8
@@ -44,8 +44,9 @@
.Nm
.Ar special_file ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Swapon
-is used to specify additional devices on which paging and swapping
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to specify additional devices on which paging and swapping
are to take place.
The system begins by swapping and paging on only a single device
so that only one disk is required at bootstrap time.
@@ -91,5 +92,5 @@ mounted during system operation.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.0 .
diff --git a/sbin/sysctl/sysctl.8 b/sbin/sysctl/sysctl.8
index 4e255e5fd69b..23ed92c3a97d 100644
--- a/sbin/sysctl/sysctl.8
+++ b/sbin/sysctl/sysctl.8
@@ -123,7 +123,9 @@ The information available from
consists of integers, strings, devices
.Pq Vt dev_t ,
and opaque types.
-.Nm Sysctl
+The
+.Nm
+utility
only knows about a couple of opaque types, and will resort to hexdumps
for the rest.
The opaque information is much more useful if retrieved by special
@@ -275,14 +277,16 @@ option has been deprecated and is silently ignored.
.Xr sysctl 3 ,
.Xr sysctl.conf 5
.Sh BUGS
-.Nm Sysctl
-presently exploits an undocumented interface to the kernel
+The
+.Nm
+utility presently exploits an undocumented interface to the kernel
sysctl facility to traverse the sysctl tree and to retrieve format
and name information.
This correct interface is being thought about for the time being.
.Sh HISTORY
-.Nm Sysctl
-first appeared in
+A
+.Nm
+utility first appeared in
.Bx 4.4 .
.Pp
In
diff --git a/sbin/tunefs/tunefs.8 b/sbin/tunefs/tunefs.8
index 4da10b0cb9ef..7ab3665bd812 100644
--- a/sbin/tunefs/tunefs.8
+++ b/sbin/tunefs/tunefs.8
@@ -53,8 +53,9 @@
.Ek
.Ar special | Ar filesystem
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Tunefs
-is designed to change the dynamic parameters of a filesystem
+The
+.Nm
+utility is designed to change the dynamic parameters of a filesystem
which affect the layout policies.
The
.Nm
@@ -167,5 +168,5 @@ You can tune a filesystem, but you can't tune a fish.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/umount/umount.8 b/sbin/umount/umount.8
index d2c8d9bb6cdf..d990f61d8148 100644
--- a/sbin/umount/umount.8
+++ b/sbin/umount/umount.8
@@ -50,8 +50,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command
-calls the
+utility calls the
.Xr unmount 2
system call to remove a
.Ar "special device"
@@ -128,5 +127,5 @@ filesystem table
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.At v6 .
diff --git a/sbin/vinum/vinum.8 b/sbin/vinum/vinum.8
index 1f6e319910b2..119a5dfd563f 100644
--- a/sbin/vinum/vinum.8
+++ b/sbin/vinum/vinum.8
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ Write a copy of the current configuration to
.It Ic quit
Exit the
.Nm
-program when running in interactive mode. Normally this would be done by
+utility when running in interactive mode. Normally this would be done by
entering the
.Dv EOF
character.
@@ -265,11 +265,11 @@ if no parameters are specified.
Create a striped volume from the specified drives.
.El
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-is a utility program to communicate with the kernel component of the Vinum
+utility communicates with the kernel component of the Vinum
logical volume manager.
-.Nm
-is designed either for interactive use, when started without command line
+It is designed either for interactive use, when started without command line
arguments, or to execute a single command if the command is supplied on the
command line. In interactive mode,
.Nm
@@ -973,7 +973,7 @@ writes the list to
.It Ic quit
Exit the
.Nm
-program when running in interactive mode. Normally this would be done by
+utility when running in interactive mode. Normally this would be done by
entering the
.Dv EOF
character.
@@ -986,7 +986,9 @@ command scans the specified disks for
partitions containing previously created configuration information. It reads
the configuration in order from the most recently updated to least recently
updated configuration.
+The
.Nm
+utility
maintains an up-to-date copy of all configuration information on each disk
partition. You must specify all of the slices in a configuration as the
parameter to this command.
@@ -1554,8 +1556,9 @@ S raid10.p1.s1 State: up PO: 279 kB Size: 573 MB
In this case, the usable part of the volume is even smaller, since the first
plex has shrunken to match the smallest drive.
.Sh CONFIGURATION FILE
+The
.Nm
-requires that all parameters to the
+utility requires that all parameters to the
.Ic create
commands must be in a configuration file. Entries in the configuration file
define volumes, plexes and subdisks, and may be in free format, except that each
@@ -1610,7 +1613,9 @@ partition, which is reserved for the complete disk.
Define the drive to be a
.Dq hot spare
drive, which is maintained to automatically replace a failed drive.
+The
.Nm
+utility
does not allow this drive to be used for any other purpose. In particular, it
is not possible to create subdisks on it. This functionality has not been
completely implemented.
@@ -1637,8 +1642,9 @@ may be either
.Cm round
or
.Cm prefer Ar plexname .
+The
.Nm
-satisfies a read request from only one of the plexes. A
+utility satisfies a read request from only one of the plexes. A
.Cm round
read policy specifies that each read should be performed from a different plex
in
@@ -1861,12 +1867,15 @@ is a swap partition, and partition
.Dq Li c
represents the whole disk and should not be used for any other purpose.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
+utility
uses the first 265 sectors on each partition for configuration information, so
the maximum size of a subdisk is 265 sectors smaller than the drive.
.Sh LOG FILE
+The
.Nm
-maintains a log file, by default
+utility maintains a log file, by default
.Pa /var/log/vinum_history ,
in which it keeps track of the commands issued to
.Nm .
@@ -2011,8 +2020,9 @@ filesystem is limited by the speed of the disk. By spreading the volume across
multiple disks, you can increase the throughput in multi-access environments.
This technique shows little or no performance improvement in single-access
environments.
+The
.Nm
-uses a technique called
+utility uses a technique called
.Dq striping ,
or sometimes RAID-0, to increase this concurrency of access. The name RAID-0 is
misleading: striping does not provide any redundancy or additional reliability.
@@ -2328,7 +2338,9 @@ load: 8.01 ms latency, 2 ms transfer, 10.01 ms total.
It appears that some hardware RAID systems have problems with large stripes:
they appear to always transfer a complete stripe to or from disk, so that a
large stripe size will have an adverse effect on performance.
+The
.Nm
+utility
does not suffer from this problem: it optimizes all disk transfers and does not
transfer unneeded data.
.Pp
@@ -2473,8 +2485,9 @@ This behaviour of
is an invitation to shoot yourself in the foot: with
.Nm ccd
you can easily overwrite a filesystem.
+The
.Nm
-will not permit this.
+utility will not permit this.
.Pp
For similar reasons, the
.Nm Ic start
@@ -2510,8 +2523,9 @@ In practice, people aren't too interested in what was in the plex when it was
created, and other volume managers cheat by setting them
.Em up
anyway.
+The
.Nm
-provides two ways to ensure that newly created plexes are
+utility provides two ways to ensure that newly created plexes are
.Em up :
.Bl -bullet
.It
@@ -2619,7 +2633,7 @@ The name of the editor to use for editing configuration files, by default
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 .
The RAID-5 component of
.Nm